Ancient Israel from Noah to Jesus

5.13: before Jacob:

6.28: intro:
. before Jacob’s 12 tribes of Israel,
there is the story of the Ark,
meant to protect the chosen, Noah,
during the god’s purging of sinners by flood
— notice the god promises no more flooding
(the next purge is by fire).
. Noah’s chosen line nearly dies out;
so then the god introduces circumcision
as a way to ensure fertility
and this is when Abram is renamed
as Abraham (father of many).

Genesis 6
1 when men were increasing on the earth,
2 The sons of God saw that
the daughters of men were fair;
and they took wives for themselves
from those who were pleasing to them.

3 And ADONAI said,
My spirit will not be in man for ever,
for he is only flesh;
so the days of his life will be 120 years.

4 There were on the earth in those days
[N’filim] men of great strength and size;
and after that, when the sons of God
had connection with the daughters of men,
they gave birth to children:
these were the great men of old days,
the men of great name.
5 And ADONAI saw that the sin of man
was great on the earth,
and that all the thoughts of his heart were evil.
7 And ADONAI said,
I will take away man, whom I have made,
from the face of the earth,
even man and every animal;
for I have sorrow for having made them.
8 But Noach [Noah] had grace in the eyes of ADONAI.
9 Noah was an upright man
and without sin in his generation:
following the ways of God.
10 Noah had three sons,
Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

14 Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood,
and make it safe from the water inside and out.
… 17 For truly,
I will send a great flow of waters over the earth,
for the destruction from under the heaven
of all flesh in which is the breath of life;
everything on the earth will come to an end.
18 But with you I will make an agreement;
you will come into the ark,
you and your sons and your wife
and your sons’ wives with you.
19 you will take with you into the ark
two of every sort of living thing,
and keep them safe with you;
they will be male and female.
20 … to keep them from destruction.
Genesis 7
1 And ADONAI said to Noah,
Take all your family and go into the ark,
for you only in this generation
have I seen to be upright.
5 And Noah did everything which ADONAI
said he was to do.

Genesis 8
21 And … ADONAI said in his heart,
I will not again
put a curse on the earth because of man,
for the thoughts of man’s heart
are evil from his earliest days;
never again will I send destruction
on all living things as I have done.
22 While the earth goes on,
seed time and the getting in of the grain,
cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night,
will not come to an end.

Genesis 9:
1 And God gave his blessing to Noah and his sons,
and said,
Be fertile, and have increase,
and make the earth full.
2 every animal will strongly fear you;
all of them are given into your hands.
3 Every living and moving thing will be food for you;
I give them all to you
as before I gave you all green things.

4 But flesh with the life-blood in it
you may not take for food.
5 And for your blood, which is your life,
will I take payment;
from every beast I will take it,
and from every man will I take payment
for the blood of his brother-man.
6 Whoever takes a man’s life,
by man will his life be taken;
because God made man in his image.

7 And now, be fertile and have increase;
have offspring on the earth and become great in number.

9 Truly, I will make my agreement with
you and with your seed after you,
10 And with every living thing with you,
which comes out of the ark with you.
11 …
never again will all flesh be cut off
by the waters;
12 And God said, This is the sign of the agreement
which I make between me and you
and every living thing with you,
for all future generations:
13 I will put my bow in the cloud
and it will be for a sign
of the agreement between me and the earth.
14 And whenever I make a cloud come over the earth,
the bow will be seen in the cloud,
15 And I will keep in mind the agreement
between me and you and every living thing;
and never again
will there be a great flow of waters
causing destruction to all flesh.

Genesis 9 (what’s up Canaan):

18 And the sons of Noah who went out of the ark
were Shem, Ham, and Japheth;
and Ham is the father of Canaan.
20 In those days Noah became a farmer,
21 And he took of the wine of it
and was overcome by drink;
and he was uncovered in his tent.
22 And Ham, the father of Canaan[Kena’an],
saw his father unclothed,
and gave news of it to his two brothers outside.
23 And Shem and Japheth took a robe,
and putting it on their backs went in with their faces turned away,
and put it over their father
so that they might not see him unclothed.
24 And, awaking from his wine, Noah saw
what his youngest son had done to him,
and he said,
25 Cursed be Canaan; let him be a
servant of servants to his brothers.
26 And he said,
Praise to ADONAI, the God of Shem;
[Shem is Noah’s eldest son]
let Canaan be his servant.

Genesis 10
6 And the sons of Ham:
Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.
8 And Cush was the father of Nimrod,
who was the first of the great men of the earth.
… a very great bowman.
10 And at the first, his kingdom was Babel … .
[summary:
Noah/Ham/Canaan is doomed to be enslaved;
Noah/Ham/Cush/Nimrod is king of Babel(Confusion);
Noah/Shem is blessed .]

Genesis 11 (what’s up with Ham’s Babel)

3 And [all the earth] said one to another,
Come, let us … make a town, and a tower
whose top will go up as high as heaven;
and let us make a great name for ourselves,
so that we may not be wanderers
over the face of the earth.
6 And ADONAI said, See, they are
all one people and have all one language;
and this is only the start
of what they may do:
and now it will not be possible to
keep them from any purpose of theirs.
7 Come, let us go down and
take away the sense of their language,
so that they will not be able to
make themselves clear to one another.
9 So it was named Babel [Bavel, confusion],
because at that place
ADONAI took away the sense of all languages
and from there ADONAI sent them away
over all the face of the earth.

10 [back to Shem, lord of Ham/Canaan]
These are the generations of Shem.
… [leads to Terah]
27 Terah was the father of Abram[Avram],
Nahor, and Haran;
and Haran was the father of Lot.
[summary:
Noah/Shem/…/Terah/Abram
Noah/Shem/…/Terah/Haran/Lot
— Abram is Lot’s uncle .]

31 Terah gathered Abram, Lot,
and Abram’s wife, Sarai;
and, they went out from
Ur of the Chaldees,
to go to the land of Canaan; … .
[ where they expected to be lords,
since they were the seed of Shem .]

Genesis 12 (and Canaan was very good):
1 Now the Lord said to Abram,
Go out from your country and family
and from your father’s house,
into the land to which I will be your guide:
2 And I will make of you a great nation,
blessing you and making your name great;
and you will be a blessing:
3 To them who are good to you
will I give blessing,
and on him who does you wrong
will I put my curse:
and you will become a name of blessing
to all the families of the earth.

6 Abram went till he came to Sh’khem[Shechem],
to the holy tree of Moreh.
At that time, the Canaanites
were still living in the land.

7 And ADONAI came to Abram, and said,
I will give all this land to your seed;
then Abram made an altar there to ADONAI
who had let himself be seen by him.

8 And moving on from there
having Beit-El[Beth-el] on the west
and ‘Ai on the east:
and there he made an altar and gave worship
to the name of ADONAI .

10 And because there was little food,
he went south, down into Egypt.
11 Now when he came near to Egypt,
he said to Sarai, his wife,
Truly, you are a fair woman
and beautiful to the eye;
12 And I am certain that
when the men of Egypt see you,
they will say, This is his wife:
and they will kill me to take you.
16 [so, Pharaoh, leader of Egypt,
was lead by Abram to believe that
Sarai could be Pharaoh’s wife;
and in return Abram was lavished with gifts ]:
he had sheep, oxen, asses,
servants (male and female), and camels.

17 [. cursing those who cursed Abram,]
ADONAI sent troubles on Pharaoh’s house.
18 Then Pharaoh sent for Abram, and said,
What have you done to me?
why did you not say that she was your wife?
19 now, take your wife and go on your way.

Genesis 13

2 Now Abram had great wealth of
cattle and silver and gold.
3 And travelling on from the South,
he came back to the place
where he had worshipped before
— between Beth-el and Ai —
and there Abram gave worship
to the name of ADONAI .
–[ enslaver of murderers …]

5 And Lot, had flocks and herds and tents;
6 So that the land was
not wide enough for the two of them:
their property was so great
that there was not room for them together.

8 Then Abram said to Lot,
Let there be no argument between me and you,
and between my herdmen and your herdmen,
for we are brothers[ Abram is Lot’s uncle .]
9 Is not all the land before you?
then let us go our separate ways:
if you go to the left, I will go to the right;
or if you take the right, I will go to the left.

12 Abram went on living in the land of Canaan,
and Lot went to the lowland towns,
moving his tent as far as Sodom.
13 Now the men of Sodom were evil,
and great sinners before the Lord.

14 And ADONAI said to Abram,
From this place where you are
take a look in all directions
(to the north, south, east and west):
15 For all the land which you see
I will give to you and to your seed
for ever.
16 And I will make your descendants
like the dust of the earth
(as numerous as the dust particles).
17 Come, go through all the land
from one end to the other
for I will give it to you.
18 And Abram, moving his tent,
came and made his living-place
by the holy tree of Mamre, in Hebron,
and made an altar there to ADONAI .

Genesis 15
3 And Abram said [to the god],
You have given me no child,
and a servant in my house
will get the heritage.
5 ADONAI took Abram out into the open air,
and said to him,
Let your eyes be lifted to heaven,
and see if the stars may be numbered;
even so will your seed be.
6 And he had faith in ADONAI,
and it was put to his account as righteousness.

7 And he said to him, I am ADONAI,
who took you from Ur of the Chaldees,
to give you this land for your heritage.

8 And Abram said, O ADONAI God,
how may I be certain that it will be mine?
… [he is then told by ADONAI
to perform a special sacrificial ritual ]
11 And evil birds came down on the bodies,
but Abram sent them away.
12 Now when the sun was going down,
a deep sleep came on Abram,
and a dark cloud of fear.
13 And ADONAI said to Abram,

Truly, your seed will be living in
a land which is not yours,
as servants to a people who will be
cruel to yours for four hundred years;
14 But I will be the judge of
that nation which enslave yours,
and yours will come out from among them
with great wealth.
15 As for you, [death will be sweet]:
you will go to your fathers in peace;
only after a long life .

16 And in the fourth generation
your seed will come back here;
[among the Emori, people from 2100BC Syria
who also occupied large parts of Mesopotamia]
for at present
the sin of the Amorite[Emori] is not full.
[ie, the god conquers only sinners;
so, Abram’s seed waits for sin .]
18 In that day
ADONAI made an agreement with Abram,
and said,
To your seed have I given this land
from the dry riverbed of Egypt
to the great river Euphrates:
Keni, K’nizi, Kadmoni, Hitti,
[ Kenite, Kenizzite, Kadmonite, Hittite ]
P’rizi, Refa’im, Emori, Kena’ani,
[Perizzite, Rephaim, Amorite, Canaanite]
Girgashi Y’vusi.
[ Girgashite, Jebusite ].

Genesis 16
1 Now Sarai, Abram’s wife,
had given him no children;
and she had a servant,
a woman of Egypt whose name was Hagar.
2 And Sarai said to Abram,
go in to my servant,
for I may get a family through her.
And Abram did as Sarai said.
6 And Abram said, The woman is in your power;
do with her whatever seems good to you.
And Sarai was cruel to her,
so that she went running away from her.

7 And an angel of ADONAI said to her,
by the fountain on the way to Shur,
Go back, and put yourself under her authority.
10 [because]
Your seed will be greatly increased
so that it may not be numbered.
11 See, you are with child
and will give birth to a son,
to whom you will give the name Yishma’el
[Ishmael, God pays attention],
because the ears of the Lord were
open to your sorrow.
12 And he will be like a mountain ass among men;
his hand will be against every man
and every man’s hand against him,
and he will keep his place against all his brothers.

13 And because ADONAI was talking with her
she thought, You are a God who is seen;
and she gave ADONAI this name,
El Ro’i [God of vision],
for she said,
Have I not even here in the waste land
had a vision of God and am still living?
14 So that fountain was named,
Be’er-Lachai-Ro’i
[Fountain of Life and Vision];
it is between Kadesh and Bered.

15 And Hagar gave birth to a son,
to whom Abram gave the name of Ishmael.

Genesis 17 [cicumcision = father of many]
1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old,
ADONAI came to him, and said,

I am El Shaddai [God Almighty or Ruler of all];
go in my ways and be upright in all things,
2 And I will make an agreement
between you and me,
and your offspring will be greatly increased.
5 No longer will your name be
Abram[exalted father],
but Abraham[father of many],
for I have made you the father of
a number of nations.
6 I will make you very fertile,
so that nations will come from you
and kings will be your offspring.

8 And to you and to your seed after you,
I will give the land in which you are living,
all the land of Canaan for an eternal heritage;
and I will be their God.

10 And this is the agreement
which you are to keep with me,
you and your seed after you:
every male among you
is to undergo circumcision.
11 [that means removal of foreskin],
as a mark of the agreement between me and you.
[. coincidentally,
circumcision discourages masturbation,
and reduces the risk of being infected
by sexually transmitted germs,
hence, in multiple ways
circumcision can increase fertility .]

14 And any male who does not undergo circumcision
will be cut off from his people:
my agreement has been broken by him.

15 And God said, As for Sarai, your wife,
from now her name will be not Sarai [mockery]
but Sarah [princess].
16 And I will give her a blessing
so that you will have a son by her:
truly my blessing will be on her,
and she will be the mother of nations:
kings of peoples will be her offspring.
17 Then Abraham went down on his face,
and laughing, said in his heart,
May a man 100 years old have a child?
will Sarah, at 90 old, give birth?
18 And Abraham said to God,
If only Ishmael’s life might be your care!
19 And God said,
Not so; but Sarah, your wife, will have a son,
and you will give him the name Yitz’chak
[Isaac, “laughter”],
and I will make my agreement with him for ever
and with his seed after him.

Genesis 18
1 Now ADONAI came to him[Abraham]
by the holy tree of Mamre,
when he was seated in the doorway of his tent
in the middle of the day;
2 And lifting up his eyes,
he saw three men before him;
and seeing them, he went quickly to them,
and went down on his face to the earth;
[in a posture of reverence or submission .]
3 And said, My Lord,
if now I have grace in your eyes,
do not go away from your servant:
[let me provide you with refreshments]
and after that you may go on your way:
for this is why you have come to your servant.
And they said, Let it be so.

9 And they said to him, Where is Sarah your wife?
And he said, She is in the tent.
10 And he said, I will certainly
come back to you in the spring,
and Sarah your wife will have a son.
And his words came to the ears of Sarah
who was at the back of the tent-door.
13 And ADONAI said, Why was Sarah laughing
and saying, Is it possible for me,
being old, to give birth to a child?
14 Is there any wonder which ADONAI is not able to do?
At the time I said, in the spring,
I will come back to you,
and Sarah will have a child.

15 Then Sarah said, I was not laughing;
for she was full of fear.
And he said, No, but you were laughing.
16 The men set out from there and looked over toward S’dom,
and Avraham went with them to see them on their way.

16 And the men went on from there
in the direction of S’dom[Sodom];
and Abraham went with them on their way.
17 And ADONAI said,

Am I to keep back from Abraham
the knowledge of what I do;
18 Seeing that Abraham will certainly become
a great and strong nation,
and his name will be used as a blessing
by all the nations of the earth ?
19 For I have made him mine so that
he may give orders to his children
and those of his line after him,
to keep the ways of ADONAI,
to do what is good and right:
so that ADONAI may do to Abraham
as he has said.
20 And ADONAI said, Because the
outcry against Sodom and ‘Amora [Gomorrah]
is very great,
and their sin is very evil,
21 I will go down now,
and [confirm the bad reports].
22 And the 3 men, turning from that place,
went on to Sodom:
but Abraham was still waiting before the ADONAI.
23 And Abraham came near, and said,
Will you let destruction come on the upright
along with the sinners?
25 Let such a thing be far from you,
to put the upright to death with the sinner:
will not the judge of all the earth do right?

Genesis 19

12 Then the [2 angels] said to Lot,
Are there any others of your family here?
sons-in-law or sons or daughters,
take them all out of this place;
13 For we are about to destroy it;
because, a great outcry against them
has come to the ears of ADONAI;
and ADONAI has sent us
to put an end to the town.
14 And Lot said to his sons-in-law,
Come, let us go out of this place,
for the Lord is about to destroy it.
But he was not taken seriously.

17 And when [the angels of destruction]
had put [the upright] outside the town,
[ADONAI] said, Go for your life,
without looking back or waiting in the lowland;
go quickly to the mountain;
or, you will come to destruction.
24 Then ADONAI sent fire and flaming smoke
raining down from heaven
on Sodom and Gomorrah.
25 And he sent destruction on
all the lowland and all their people
and every green thing in the land.
26 But Lot’s wife, looking back,
became a pillar of salt.

29 So it came about that when God
sent destruction on the evil towns,
he kept his word to Abraham,
and sent Lot safely away first .

30 Then Lot went up to the mountain,
and was living there with his two daughters,
for fear kept him from living in
[any other city in the same valley with
the towns that were destroyed? …];
and he and his daughters made their living-place
in a hole in the rock.
31 And the older daughter said to her sister,
Our father is old, and there is
no man to be a husband to us
in the natural way:
32 Come, let us give our father much wine,
and we will go into his bed,
so that we may have offspring by our father, …
36 And so the two daughters of Lot
were with child by their father.

Genesis 20
1 And Abraham went on his way from there
to the land of the South,
and was living between Kadesh and Shur, in Gerar.
2 And Abraham said of Sarah, his wife,
She is my sister: and Abimelech, king of Gerar,
sent and took Sarah.
3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream …
6 And God said to him in the dream,
I see that you have done this with an upright heart,
and I have kept you from sinning against me:
for this reason I did not let you come near her.
7 So now, give the man back his wife,
for he is a prophet,
and let him say a prayer for you,
so your life may be safe: …
10 And Abimelech said to Abraham,
Why did you do this thing?
11 And Abraham said,
Because, it seemed to me in this place
that there was no fear of God,
and that they might put me to death
because of my wife.
12 And, in fact, she is my half sister,
the daughter of my father,
but not the daughter of my mother;
and she became my wife:
13 And when God sent me
wandering from my father’s house,
I said to her,
Let this be the sign of your love for me;
wherever we go, say of me,
He is my brother.

15 And Abimelech said, See, all my land is before you;
take whatever place seems good to you.
16 And he said to Sarah,
See, I have given to your brother
a thousand bits of silver
so that your wrong may be put right;
now your honour is clear in the eyes of all.
17 Then Abraham made prayer to God,
and God made Abimelech women well again,
18 For ADONAI had made them infertile
because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.

Genesis 21
1 And ADONAI came to Sarah
2 And Sarah became with child,
and gave Abraham a son when he was old,
at the time named by God.
4 And when his son Isaac was eight days old,
Abraham made him undergo circumcision,
as God had said to him.

9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian
playing with Isaac.
10 So she said to Abraham,
Send away that woman and her son:
for the son of that woman
is not to have a part in
the heritage with my son Isaac.
11 And this was a great grief to Abraham
because of his son.
12 But God said, Let it not be a grief to you
because of the boy and Hagar his mother;
give ear to whatever Sarah says to you,
because it is from Isaac
that your seed will take its name.
14 And early in the morning
Abraham sent her away:
wandering in the waste land
of Beer-sheba.
[but the angel of God showed Hagar
where to find some water .]
20 And God was with the boy,
and he became tall and strong,
and he became a bowman,
living in the waste land.
21 And while he was in the waste land of Paran,
his mother got him a wife from the land of Egypt.

22 Now at that time, Abimelech
and Phicol, the captain of his army,
said to Abraham,
I see that God is with you in all you do.
23 Now, then, give me your oath,
in the name of God,
that you will not be false to me
or to my sons after me,
but that as I have been good to you,
so you will be to me and to this land
where you have been living.
24 And Abraham said, I will give you my oath.
25 But Abraham made a protest to Abimelech
because of a water-hole taken forcefully
by Abimelech’s servants;
26 But Abimelech said, I have no idea who has done this thing;
you never gave me word of it, and I had no knowledge of it till this day.
27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech,
and the two of them made an agreement together.
28 And Abraham put seven young lambs of the flock
on one side by themselves.
29 Then Abimelech said, What are these seven lambs
which you have put on one side?
30 And he said, Take these seven lambs from me
as a witness that I have made this water-hole.
31 This is why that place was called – because they both swore an oath there.
31 So he gave that place the name Be’er-Sheva
[Beer-sheba well of seven, well of an oath].

33 Abraham planted at Beer-sheba
{a tamarisk tree, a holy tree},
and gave worship to the name of ADONAI,
the Eternal God.
34 And Abraham went on living in the land of
the P’lishtim [Philistines]
as in a strange country.

Genesis 22
1 Now after these things,
God put Abraham to the test,
and said to him, Abraham;
and he said, Here am I.
2 And he said to him, Take your son,
your dearly loved only son Isaac,
and go to the land of Moriyah[Moriah]
and give him as a burned offering
on one of the mountains
of which I will give you knowledge.
7 Then Isaac said to Abraham, My father;
and he said, Here am I, my son.
And he said, We have wood and fire here,
but where is the lamb
for the burned offering?
8 And Abraham said, God himself will
give the lamb for the burned offering:
so they went on together. …
10 And stretching out his hand,
Abraham took the knife to put his son to death.
11 But the voice of the angel of ADONAI
came from heaven, saying, Abraham, Abraham:
and he said, Here am I.
12 And he said, Let not your hand be
stretched out against the boy
to do anything to him;
for now I am certain that the fear of God is in your heart,
because you have not kept back your son, your only son, from me.
13 And lifting up his eyes,
Abraham saw a trapped sheep,
its horns trapped in the brushwood .

14 And Abraham gave that place the name
{ADONAI Yir’eh, Yahweh-yireh}:
[ADONAI will see (to it), ADONAI provides]
as it is said to this day,
In the mountain ADONAI is seen.

Genesis 24
15 … Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel,
the son of Milcah, who was the wife
of Nahor, Abraham’s brother …
29 Rebekah had a brother named Laban, …

62 Now Isaac had come through the waste land
to Be’er-Lachai-Ro’i [Beer-lahai-roi];
for he was living in the {Negev, South}.
63 And when the evening was near,
he went wandering out into the fields,
and lifting up his eyes he saw camels coming.
67 And Isaac took Rebekah into his tent
and she became his wife;
and in his love for her,
Isaac was comforted after his father’s death.

Genesis 25
1 And Abraham took another wife named Keturah.
20 Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah,
the daughter of Bethuel the Aramaean of Paddan-aram,
and the sister of Laban the Aramaean, to be his wife.
22 And the children were fighting together inside her,
and she said, If I am to be like this, why ?
So she went to put her question to the Lord.
23 And the Lord said to her, Two nations are in your body,
and two peoples will come to birth from you:
the one will be stronger than the other,
and the older will be the servant of the younger.
25 And the first came out red from head to foot
like a robe of hair,
and they gave him the name of ‘Esav [Esau,
completely formed, that is, having hair already].

26 And after him, his brother came out,
gripping Esau’s foot;
and he was named Ya’akov [Jacob,
he catches by the heel, he supplants].
Isaac was sixty years old when she gave birth to them.

3.4: ancient history of the 12 tribes

. the history of Judah and Ephraim,
starts with Jacob,
and how he gets renamed as Israel .
. the term “Israel” usually refers to
the 12 tribes fathered by Jacob’s children;
but in the context of “Judah and Ephraim”
Judah includes the Benjamin Tribe,
and Ephraim includes the other 10 tribes .
. the tribe of Levi became the priests,
who could be found in both camps,
the regions of Judah and Ephraim .
. the 12 sons come from 4 mothers:
the beautiful Rachel, her sister, Leah,
who got married by trickery,
and their 2 servants .

Jacob breaks tradition:

. Jacob and Esau were born fraternal twins,
and although they were both first-fruits,
Esau was technically the eldest by a minute;
nevertheless,
Jacob was thought to be the more deserving;
because, he was willing to study the Word
(academy of Shem and Eber teaching of G-d)
whereas Esau, while honoring his parents,
was frustrated by book-learning;
therefore, the mother, Rebekah,
tricked the father, Isaac, into blessing Jacob,
leaving Esau out of an expected blessing:
(Genesis 27)
27 And Isaac .. smelling Jacob’s clothing
[that were borrowed from his elder brother]
said,
See, the smell of my son
is like the smell of a field
on which the blessing of ADONAI has come:
28
May God give you the dew of heaven,
and the good things of the earth,
and grain and wine in full measure:
Let peoples be your servants,
and nations go down before you:
be lord over your brothers,
and let your mother’s sons go down before you:
a curse be on everyone by whom you are cursed,
and a blessing on those who give you a blessing.

[ then Esau came in from the field: ]
32
And Isaac his father said to him,
Who are you?
And he said, I am your oldest son, Esau.
And in great fear Isaac said,
Who then is he who
got meat and put it before me,
and I took it all before you came,
and gave him a blessing,
and his it will be?
Your brother came with deceit,
and took away your blessing.
36
And Esau said,
Is it because he is named Jacob [he supplants],
that he has twice taken my place?
for he took away my birthright,
and now he has taken away my blessing[!?]
Have you not kept a blessing for me?
. Isaac answering said,
But I have made him your master,
and have given him all his brothers for servants;
I have made him strong with grain and wine:
what then am I to do for you, my son?

Far from the fertile places of the earth,
and far from the dew of heaven on high
will your living-place be:
By your sword will you get your living
and you will be your brother’s servant;
but when your power is increased
his yoke will be broken from off your neck.
41
So Esau was full of hate for Jacob
because of his father’s blessing;
and he said in his heart,
[silently vowing to himself:]
The days of weeping for my father are near;
then I will put my brother Jacob to death.
42
Then Rebekah, after [mind-reading] Esau,
[or predicting his likely response]
said to Jacob,
It seems that your brother Esau
is purposing to put you to death.
So now, my son, do what I say:
go quickly to Haran, to my brother
Lavan [Laban, “white”]
And be there with him for a little time,
till your brother’s wrath is turned away;
Till the memory of what you have done to him is past
and he is no longer angry:
then I will send word for you to come back;
are the two of you [both Isaac and Jacob]
to be taken from me in one day?
46
Then Rebekah said to Isaac,
My life is a weariness to me
because of the daughters of Heth [Hitti]:
if Jacob takes a wife from such as
these, the women of this land,
of what use will my life be to me?
Genesis 28:
Then Isaac sent for Jacob, and blessing him,
said,
Do not take a wife from among the women of
Kena’ani [Canaan];
But go to Paddan-aram, to the house of
B’tu’el [Bethuel], your mother’s father,
and there get yourself a wife from the daughters of
Laban, your mother’s brother.
10
So Jacob went out from  Be’er-Sheva[Beer-sheba];
And found himself near Luz at sunset;
so, with a stone for a head rest,
He dreamt of steps stretching from earth to heaven,
and the angels of ADONAI
were going up and down on them.
13
And the Lord was by his side, saying,
I am ADONAI, the god of
Avraham [Abraham] your father,
and the God of Yitz’chak [Isaac]:
I will give to you and to your seed
this land on which you are sleeping.
14
Your seed will be like the dust of the earth,
covering all the land
to the west, east, north and south:
you and your seed will be a name of blessing
to all the families of the earth.
And truly, I will be with you,
and will keep you wherever you go,
guiding you back again to this land;
and I will not give you up
till I have done what I have said here .
16
And Jacob, awaking from his sleep, said,
Truly, ADONAI is in this place
and I was not conscious of it.
17
And fear came on him, and he said,
This is a holy place;
this is nothing less than the house of God
and the doorway of heaven.
18
And early in the morning
Jacob oiled his pillow stone
and put it up as a pillar or standing-stone.
And he renamed that place, Beit-El
[Beth-el, house of god the Father of all gods];
20
Then Jacob took an oath, and said,
If God will be with me,
and keep me safe on my journey,
and give me food and clothing to put on,
So that I come again to my father’s house
in peace [even with the brother he tricked],
then I will take ADONAI to be my God,
And this stone which I have put up for a pillar
will be God’s house: and of all you give me,
I will give a tenth part to you.

Genesis 29

16 Now Laban had two daughters:
the name of the older was Le’ah [Leah],
and the name of the younger was Rachel.
17 And Leah’s eyes were clouded,
but Rachel was fair in face and form.

25 And only in the morning
did Jacob see his new bride was Leah:
and he said to Laban,
What have you done to me?
was I not working for you so that I might have Rachel?
why have you been false to me?
And Laban said, In our country
we do not let the younger daughter
be married before the older.
. after the week of the bride-feast;
then we will give you the original deal:
work 7 more years for Rachel .
31
Now ADONAI, seeing that Leah was not loved,
stressed Rachel into being infertile.

And Leah gave birth to a son
to whom she gave the name
Re’uven [Reuben, “see, a son!”]:
for she said,
The Lord has seen my sorrow;
now my husband will have love for me.
33
. for Leah’s son#2, she said,
Because it has come to ADONAI’s ears
that I am not loved,
he has given me this son in addition:
and she gave him the name
Shim’on [Simeon, “hearing”]..
34
. for Leah’s son#3, she said,
Now at last my husband will be united to me,
because I have given him three sons:
so he was named Levi [“joining”]..
35
. for Leah’s son#4, she said,
This time I will give praise to ADONAI:
so he was named Y’hudah [Judah, “praise”];
after this she had no more children for a time.
–[ apparently this was due to her sister
putting her on Husband restriction! ]

Genesis 30
1
Now Rachel, because she had no children,
was full of envy of her sister;
and she said to Ya’akov[Jacob],
If you do not give me children I will not go on living.
Here is my servant Bilhah, go in to her,
so that she may have a child on my knees,
and I may have a family by her.
6
Then Rachel said,
God has been my judge,
and has given ear to my voice,
so the resulting son was named Dan[“judge”].
7
. for Bilhah son#2 Rachel said,
I have had a great fight with my sister,
and I have overcome her:
the child’s name is Naphtali [“my wrestling”].
9
When it was clear to Leah that she would
have no more children for a time,
she gave Zilpah, her servant, to Jacob as a wife.
11
. for Leah`Zilpah’s son#1, Leah said,
It has gone well for me: the child’s name is
Gad [“troop” or “good fortune”].
12
. for Leah`Zilpah’s son#2, Leah said,
Happy am I! and all women will give witness to my joy:
and she gave him the name Asher [“happiness”].
14
Now at the time of the grain-harvesting,
Re’uven [Reuben, the first-born (via Leah)]:
saw some love-fruits[mandrakes] in the field,
and Rachel said to Leah,
Let me have some of your son’s love-fruits
[in the belief it would enhance fertility].
15
But Leah said to her, Is it a small thing
that you have taken my husband from me?
and now would you take my son’s love-fruits?
Then Rachel said,
You may have our husband tonight
in exchange for your son’s love-fruits.
18
. for Leah’s son#5, she said,
God has made payment to me for
giving my servant-girl to my husband:
so the child’s name is
Issachar [hire, rewarded].
19
. for Leah’s son#6, she said,
God has given me a good bride-price;
now at last will I have my husband living with me,
for I have given him six sons:
the child’s name is
Zebulun [living together, dwelling].
21
After that Leah gave birth to
Jacob’s first daughter,
to whom she gave the name Dinah
[controversy over rights, judged].
22
Then God gave thought to Rachel,
and hearing her prayer he made her fertile
–[. the magic mandrakes didn’t persuade? ]–
23
. for Rachel’s son#1, she said:
God has taken away my shame;
the child’s name is
Yosef [Joseph, may he add],
saying, May ADONAI give me another son.
25
Now after the birth of Joseph,
Jacob said to Laban,
Let me go away to my place and my country.
27
And Laban said,
If you will let me say so, do not go away;
for I have seen by the signs that ADONAI
has been good to me because of you.
29
Then Jacob said,
You have seen what I have done for you,
and how your cattle have done well under my care.
For before I came you had little,
and it has been greatly increased;
and ADONAI has given you a blessing
in everything I have done;
but when am I to do something for my family?
Let me take among your flock today,
all the ones that are not pure white .
And so if you see among my flocks
any goats which are not marked or coloured,
or any sheep which is not black,
you may take me for a thief.
42
[… by selective breeding]
the feebler flocks were Laban’s [dysgenics]
and the stronger were Jacob’s. [eugenics]
So Jacob’s wealth was greatly increased;
he had great flocks, servants, camels, and asses.

Genesis 31
1
Now it came to the ears of Jacob
that Laban’s sons were saying,
Jacob has taken away all our father’s property,
and in this way he has got all this wealth.
And Jacob saw that Laban’s feeling for him
was no longer what it had been before.
3
Then ADONAI said to Jacob,
Go back to the land of your fathers,
and to your relations [even the angry brother],
and I will be with you.

4 And Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah
to come to him in the field among his flock.
5
And he said to them, It is clear to me that
your father’s feeling is no longer what it was to me;
but the God of my father has been with me.
And you have seen how I have done
all in my power for your father,
7 But your father has not kept faith with me,
and ten times he has made changes in my payment;
but God has kept him from doing me damage.
8 If he said, All those in the flock which have marks
are to be yours,
then all the flock gave birth to marked young;
and if he said, All the banded ones
are to be yours,
then all the flock had banded young.
9 So God has taken away your father’s cattle
and has given them to me.
10
And at the time when the flock were with young,
I saw in a dream
that all the he-goats
which were joined with the she-goats
were banded and marked and coloured.
And the angel of God said to me, Jacob:
and I said, Here am I.
See how all the he-goats non-pure white:
for I have seen what Laban has done to you.
I am the God of Beth-el,
where you put oil on the pillar
and took an oath to me:
now then, come out of this land
and go back to the country of your birth.
14
Then Rachel and Leah said to him in answer,
What part or heritage is there for us
in our father’s house?
Are we not as people from a strange country to him?
for he took a price for us
and now it is all used up.
For the wealth which God has taken from him
is ours and our children’s;
so now, whatever God has said to you, do.
17
Then Jacob put his wives and his sons on camels;
18
And sending on before him all his cattle
and his property which he had got together in Paddan-aram,
he made ready for the trip home
to the land of Canaan.
19
Now Laban had gone to shear his sheep;
so Rachel secretly stole from her home
her father’s images of the gods .
20 And Jacob went away secretly,
without giving news of his flight to Laban
the Aramaean.
21 So he went away with all he had,
and went across the [Euphrates] River
in the direction of the hill-country
of Gil’ad [Gilead].

22 And on the third day
Laban had news of Jacob’s flight.
23 And taking the men of his family with him,
he went after him for seven days
and overtook him in the hill-country of Gilead.
24
Then God came to Laban in a dream by night,
and said to him,
Take care that you say
nothing good or bad to Jacob.
25
Now when Laban overtook him,
Jacob had put up his tent in the hill-country;
and Laban and his brothers did likewise .
26 And Laban said to Jacob,
Why did you go away secretly,
taking my daughters away like prisoners of war?
27
Why did you make a secret of your flight,
not giving me word of it,
so that I might have sent you away with
joy and songs, with melody and music?
28
You did not even let me give a kiss
to my sons and my daughters.
This was a foolish thing to do.
29
It is in my power to do you damage:
but the God of your father came to me
this night, saying,
Take care that you say nothing good or bad
to Jacob.
30
And now, it seems,
you are going because your heart’s desire
is for your father’s house;
but why have you taken my gods?
31 And Jacob, in answer, said to Laban,
My fear was that you might
take your daughters from me by force.
32
As for your gods, if anyone of us has them,
let him be put to death:
make search before us all for what is yours,
and take it.
For Jacob had no knowledge that
Rachel had taken them.
33
So Laban went into Jacob’s tent and into Leah’s tent,
and into the tents of the two servant-women,
but they were not there;
and he came out of Leah’s tent
and went into Rachel’s.
34
Now Rachel had taken the images,
and had put them in the camels’ basket,
and was seated on them.
And Laban, searching through all the tent,
did not come across them.
35
And she said to her father,
Let not my lord be angry because
I do not get up before you,
for I am in the common condition of women.
–[engaging in a feminine hygiene activity,
to inhibit a full search]–
And with all his searching,
he did not come across the images.
36
Then Jacob was angry with Laban, and said,
What crime or sin have I done
that you have come after me with such passion?
Now that you have made search through all my goods,
what have you seen which is yours?
Make it clear now before my people and your people,
so that they may be judges between us.
These twenty years I have been with you;
your sheep and your goats have had young without loss,
not one of your he-goats
have I taken for food.
Anything which was wounded by beasts
I did not take to you,
but myself made up for the loss of it;
you made me responsible for whatever was taken by thieves,
by day or by night.
— wasted by heat in the day
and by the bitter cold at night;
and sleep went from my eyes.
These twenty years I have been in your house;
I was your servant for fourteen years
because of your daughters,
and for six years I kept your flock,
and ten times was my payment changed.
42
If the God of my father had not been with me
— the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac —
you would have sent me away with nothing in my hands.
But God has seen my troubles and the work of my hands,
and this night he kept you back.
43
Then Laban, answering, said,
These women are my daughters
and these children my children,
the flocks and all you see are mine:
what now may I do for my daughters
and for their children?
Come, let us make an agreement, you and I;
and let it be for a witness between us.
45
Then Jacob took a stone and put it up as a pillar.
And Jacob said to his people,
Get stones together; and they did so;
and they had a meal there by the stones.
47
And the name Laban gave it was Y’gar-Sahaduta
[Jegar-sahadutha, Aramaic “pile of witness” ]:
but Jacob gave it the name of Gal-‘Ed
[ Galeed, Hebrew “pile of witness”]..
48
And Laban said,
These stones are a witness
between you and me today.
For this reason its name was Galeed,
49 And HaMitzpah [Mizpah, the watchtower],
for he said,
May ADONAI keep watch on us
when we are unable to see one another’s doings.
If you are cruel to my daughters,
or if you take other wives in addition to my daughters,
then though no man is there to see,
God will be the witness between us.
See these stones and this pillar
which I have put between you and me;
They will be witness
that I will not go over these stones to you,
and you will not go over these stones
or this pillar to me,
for any evil purpose.
May the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor,
the God of their father, be our judge.

Then Jacob took an oath
by the Fear of his father Isaac.
54
And Jacob made an offering on the mountain,
and gave orders to his people to take food:
so they had a meal and took their rest that night
on the mountain.
55
And early in the morning
Laban, after kissing and blessing his daughters,
went on his way back to his country.

Genesis 32
1
And on his way
Jacob came face to face with the angels of God.
And when he saw them he said,
This is the army of God[or God’s camp]:
so he gave that place the name of Machanayim
[Mahanaim, “two camps” (for competition
for tech evolution for eternal survival)]
3
Now Jacob sent servants before him
to Esau, his brother,
in the land of Se’ir[Seir], the country of Edom;
And he gave them orders to say these words
to Esau:
Your servant Jacob says,
Till now I have been living with Laban:
And I have oxen and asses and flocks and breedable servants:
and I have sent to give my lord
news of these things
so that I may have grace in his eyes.
[grace: coordination: plenty to share]
6
When the servants came back they said,
We have seen your brother Esau
and he is coming out to you,
and four hundred men with him.
7
Then Jacob was in great fear and trouble of mind:
and he put all the people and the flocks and the herds
and the camels into two groups;
And said,
If Esau, meeting one group,
makes an attack on them,
the others will get away safely.
9
Then Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham,
the God of my father Isaac,
ADONAI who said to me,
Go back to your country and your family
and I will be good to you:
I am less than nothing in comparison with
all your mercies and your faith to me
your servant;
for with only my stick in my hand
I went across Jordan,
and now I have become two armies.
Be my saviour from the hand of Esau, my brother:
for my fear is that he will make an attack on me,
putting to death mother and child.
And you said, Truly, I will be good to you,
and make your seed like the sand of the sea
which may not be numbered.
13
Then he put up his tent there for the night;
and from among his goods he took,
as an offering for his brother Esau,
200 she-goats and 20 he-goats,
200 female sheep, 20 male sheep .
30 dairy camels with their young ones,
40 cows, 10 oxen, 20 asses, and 10 young asses.
These he gave to his servants,
every herd by itself,
and he said to his servants,
Go on before me, and let there be a space
between one herd and another.
17
And he gave orders to the first, second, third
and to all those who were with the herds,
saying,
When my brother Esau comes to you and says,
Whose servant are you,
and where are you going,
and whose are these herds?
18
Then say to him,
These are your servant Jacob’s;
they are an offering for my lord, for Esau;
and he himself is coming after us.
And you are to say further,
Jacob, your servant, is coming after us.
For he said to himself,
I will take away his wrath
by the offering which I have sent on,
and then I will come before him:
it may be that I will have grace in his eyes.
21
So the servants with the offerings went on in front,
and he himself took his rest that night in the tents with his people.
22
And in the night he got up,
and taking with him his two wives
and the two servant-women and his eleven children,
he went over the river Yabok [Jabbok].
He took them and sent them over the stream
with all he had.
24
Then Jacob was by himself;
and a man was fighting with him till dawn.
25
But when the man saw that he was
not able to overcome Jacob,
he gave him a blow in the hollow part of his leg,
so that his leg was damaged [or dislocated a hip].
26
And he said to Jacob,
Let me go now, for the dawn is near.
But Jacob said,
I will not let you go till you have
given me your blessing.
27
Then the man said, What is your name?
And Jacob said “Ya’akov”.
28
And he said,
Your name will no longer be Jacob,
but Isra’el [Israel, “who prevails with El*”]
for in your fight with God* and with men
you have overcome.
*:[3.15:
. El means “Father of all gods” .
. this is what the Muslims call the Greater Jihad,
when one wrestles with the powers of supernature
there are 2 sides to god, good vs evil
future vs now, self vs community,
and knowing how to balance these,
that is overcoming your fight with “God” .
3.17:
. in Jacob’s fight with g-d,
he wonders how he can be g-d’s army,
and sees it must be 2 camps:
the first idea is to save one self`camp
by possibly sacrificing another self`camp;
he finally wins by seeing his adversary as self
and deciding to unite the 2 camps {self, brother}
through presenting himself as a servant .
. but from recurrences of this situation,
where he is renamed Israel by g-d,
you might get the idea it was sarcasm;
g-d seems to be saying:
“(. you have much to think about,
perhaps you think you fight with g-d,
you fight for smarter ideas,
and there you earn what g-d promised you .)

3.15: israel as wrestles with god:

. “Isra’el” means “wrestles with god”; because,
here is the stranger being asked for a blessing
meaning the stranger is being told:
“I will not let you go from this fight
until you promise not to back-stab me”,
and luckily the stranger was a man of his word
— bound by a conscious to honor his word,
and implying a reliance on god
assuming that is what drives our conscious —
otherwise there would be no god helping this
so he says wrestles with god you are .

3.17: how Israel prevails against god of gods:

. prevailing in a struggle with El,
the father of gods?
. he dreams of wrestling what seems to be god’s agent
[4.20: then sees his feared brother as god’s puppet];
. anything you can imagine as El’s personality
is only a god created by El
(you can never actually see El’s behavior,
because El’s only behavior is the creation of
the puppet gods and personalities
that we are allowed to see ).
. the idea of “prevails in a fight with El”
means being able to see through the puppet gods
in order to know the actual mind of El,
the mastermind that generates those gods .
. the mind of El creates each personality,
including the feelings that drive the irrational,
as well as the labyrinths of rationality
(nobody can be “godless”, we are all El’s puppets).
. El orchestrates all the personalities
to ensure they collectively serve El’s ultimate goal:
every planet’s intelligence must evolve a technology
that will ensure intelligence’s eternal survival,
all for ensuring the creation of
an eternity of infinitely diverse experiences .]

29
Then Jacob said,
What is your name? And he said,
What is my name to you?
Then he gave him a blessing.
30
And Jacob gave that place the name of P’ni-El
[Peniel, “face of God the father of all gods”],
saying,
I have seen God face to face,
and still I am living.
31
And while he was going past Peniel,
the sun came up.
And he went with unequal steps
because of his damaged leg.
32
For this reason
the children of Israel, even today,
never take as food that muscle
in the hollow of the leg,
[thigh muscle that passes along the hip socket]
because the hollow of Jacob’s leg was touched.

3.16: 2-camp god lesson:

. at first {Jacob,Israel}’s idea of 2 camps
is to divide possessions in order that
one can be sacrificed to save the other .
. his next idea
(after wrestling with conscience; ie, god)
is that 2 camps is about
specialization for a stronger unity:
the learned and the worker need each other as equals,
if father puts the learned as worker’s master,
the learned should say I’m worker’s servant .
… he may have been using psychology too:
what our father said about hierarchy,
what does it mean really ?
. here, I’ll play the servant;
what does the master do with this, brother ?

Genesis 33
1
Then Jacob, lifting up his eyes,
saw Esau coming with his four hundred men.
So he made a division of the children
between Leah and Rachel and their two servants.
He put the servants and their children in front,
Leah and her children after them,
and Rachel and Joseph at the back.
3 And he himself, going before them,
went down on his face to the earth 7 times
till he came near his brother.
4
Then Esau came running up to him,
and folding him in his arms, gave him a kiss:
and the two of them were overcome with weeping.
5
Then Esau, lifting up his eyes,
saw the women and the children, and said,
Who are these with you?
And he said,
The children whom God in his mercy
has given to your servant.
6
Then the servants and their children came near,
and went down on their faces.
7 And Leah came near with her children,
and then Joseph and Rachel,
and they did the same.
8
And he said, What were all those herds
which I saw on the way?
And Jacob said, They were an offering
so that I might have grace in my lord’s eyes.
9
But Esau said, I have enough;
keep what is yours, my brother, for yourself.
10
And Jacob said, Not so;
but if I have grace in your eyes,
take them as a sign of my love,
for I have seen your face
as one may see the face of God,
and you have been pleased with me.
11
Take my offering then, with my blessing;
for God has been very good to me
and I have enough:
so at Jacob’s strong request, Esau took it.
12
And Esau said,
Let us go on our journey together,
and I will go in front.
But Jacob said,
My lord may see that the children are only small,
and there are young ones in my flocks and herds:
one day’s over-driving
will be the destruction of all the flock.
14
Do you, my lord, go on before your servant;
I will come on slowly,
at the rate at which the cattle and the children are able to go,
till I come to my lord at Seir.
15
And Esau said, Then keep some of my men with you.
And he said, What need is there for that,
if my lord is pleased with me?
So Esau, turning back that day,
went on his way to Seir.
17 And Jacob went on to Sukkot [Succoth],
where he made a house for himself and put up tents for his cattle:
for this reason the place was named Sukkot [“shelters”]..
18
So Jacob came safely from Paddan-aram
to the town of Shechem in the land of Canaan,
and put up his tents near the town.
in a field he bought from the children of Hamor,
the builder of Sh’khem [Shechem].
20
And there he put up an altar,
naming it El-Elohei-Yisra’el
[god to father of all gods,
the God of Israel].

Genesis 34
[. Jacob’s daughter is raped by the chief
but then raper repents and wants marriage
even being willing to circumcise the village .
(3.15:
. I’m reminded Jacob cheats his brother,
and is then renamed Israel,
and is humbly repenting as servant;
his brother in return offers escort service,
but Israel is suspicious of it;
then this rape happens ).
. the village does get circumcised,
and while they are still weak from surgery,
Israel’s sons Simeon and Levi
murder every male in the village,
and have Israel fearing for his future there .]
30
And Israel said to Simeon and Levi,
You have made trouble for me
and given me a bad name
among the people of this country,
among the Canaanites and the Perizzites:
and because we are small in number
they will come together against me
and make war on me;
and it will be the end of me
and all my people.
31
But they said,
Were we to let him make use of our sister
as a loose woman?

Genesis 35
1
And God said to Jacob, Go up now to Beth-el
and make your living-place there:
and put up an altar there
to the God who came to you
when you were in flight from your brother Esau.
2
Then Jacob said to all his people,
Put away the strange gods which are among you,
and make yourselves clean,
and put on a change of clothing:
And let us go up to Beth-el:
and there I will make an altar to God,
who gave me an answer in the day of my trouble,
and was with me wherever I went.
4
Then they gave to Jacob all the strange gods
and the rings which were in their ears;
and Jacob put them under the holy tree at Shechem
[a pistachio tree].

So they went on their journey:
and the fear of God was on the towns round about,
so that they made no attack on the sons of Jacob.
And Jacob peope came to Beth-el
(aka, Luz in the land of Canaan)
7
And there he made an altar,
naming the place El-Beit-El
[El-beth-el, God of Beit-El]:
because it was there he had the vision of God
when he was in flight from his brother.
–[3.15:
. when he first saw this place
as the source of vision of El,
he said:
this is nothing less than the house of God
and the doorway of heaven.
And he renamed that place, Beit-El
meaning house of El,
where El is god the Father of all gods,
the one who can ensure success;
so, El-Beit-El seems to mean
almighty god of house of almighty god;
or does he call the alter god ?
I’m reminded that god’s army is “2 camps”.
. how did the god offer him protection
and then allow such catastrophe?
seems to be god of house of god,
not so much god of all earth ?
let’s see if he has a change of heart …]
8
[recall that Jacob’s mother is Rebekah,
and Rebekah had urged him to cheat his brother;]
Rebekah’s servant from birth onward,
died right after the move to Beth-el .
9
[ and again supernature calls
to change Jacob’s name to Israel .]
Now when Jacob was on his way from Paddan-aram,
God came to him again and, blessing him,
said,
Jacob is your name,
but it will be so no longer;
from now your name will be Israel;
I am El Shaddai [God, the Ruler of all]:
be fertile, and have increase;
a nation, truly a group of nations,
will come from you,
and kings will be your offspring;
And the land I gave to Abraham and Isaac,
I will give to you,
and to your seed after you.
13
Then God went up from him
in the place where he had been talking with him.
14
And again Jacob revered his meeting with god
by puttin up an oiled pillar in that place
and also he put a drink offering on it .
And again he named the place Beth-el.
16
. during their next journey from Beth-el
favorite wife Rachel died giving birth;
18
she named him Ben-Oni [“son of my sorrow”],
but his father renamed him Binyamin
[ Benjamin, “son of the {right hand, south}”].

19
[. after {Jacob,Israel} buries Rachel,
the narrative refers to him as Israel;]
22
Now while they were living in that country,
Reuben [Israel’s first-born]
had intercourse with Rachel’s servant
— one of Israel’s serrogate wives —
— who his father had intercourse with —
— mother of his brothers: Dan and Naphtali —
and Israel had news of it.

28
. Isaac had been living all this time
— a hundred and eighty years old —
but died soon after being visited by Jacob .

Genesis 36

6
. the house of Esau moved to the land of Seir,
away from his brother Jacob.
9
. Esau is the father of the Edomites .

Genesis 37
1
Now Jacob resided in the land of Canaan
in the land where his father
had made a place for himself.
but all was not well:
Jacob loved Joseph like a first-born,
but he was nearly the last-born!
[3.15:
. I’m recalling pieces of the story:
Joseph is first-born of the favored wife,
a reference to selective breeding;
and, one of his keys to wealth,
even the profitability of his servants
was his selective breeding of them .
. when you think of how tainted
the idea of eugenics has become,
think of the jealousy around Joseph .]
5
Now Joseph had a dream:
We brothers were in the field,
getting the grain stems together,
and my grain kept upright,
while yours came round
and went down on the earth before mine.
. and he gave his brothers an account of it,
which made their hate greater than ever.
8
And his brothers said to him,
Are you to be our king?
will you have authority over us?
And because of his dream and his words,
their hate for him became greater than ever.
9 Then he had another dream,
the sun and the moon and 11 stars
gave honour to me.
10
And he gave word of it to his father and his brothers;
but his father protesting said,
What sort of a dream is this?
am I and your mother and your brothers
to go down on our faces to the earth
before you?
11
And his brothers were full of envy;
but his father kept his words in mind.
..
13,
[ now the narrative calls him Israel
when he asks Joseph to check on his brothers;
this is where they plan to kill “the dreamer”,
Reuben prefers he be left in a pit,
and then Judah gets the idea to sell him
to a travelling band of Ishmaelites,
coming from Gilead on their way to Egypt . 6.28:
. Ishmaelites are the descendants of Ishmael,
the elder son of Abraham, by his concubine .
. soon after Abraham had a son by his wife,
that wife evicted Ishmael and his mother:
they were sent into the desert,
yet they not only survived,
but now they were wealthy slave traders,
about to help Joseph repeat their experience .]

Genesis 38
[ Judah sexually approaches a “covered face”
who happens to be his daughter-in-law?
. when your brother dies
you are expected to breed his wife;
but, if you use birth control during that service
your father puts you to death .
. on the other hand,
a father would rather take on a prostitute
than service his dead son’s wife .
. first Judah kills son for
faking the seeding of brother’s widow,
then she can’t get Judah to do the job
without pretending to be a prostitute .
. as a sort of harbinger,
Judah has to kill his first son too
because he did evil in the eyes of ADONAI .]

Genesis 39-41:
[. back in egypt,
Joseph has similar problems:
he is the most trusted servant,
but his master’s wife wants service,
which would be a sin against the god .
. when he persistently refuses,
she fakes a rape and has him imprisoned;
. there he gets connected with the Pharaoh:
one of his servants discovers that
Joseph is an excellent interpreter of dreams;
and, the Pharaoh eventually needs that service .
3.15:
. this is one of the top bible lessons:
prepare for cycles of fortune:
floods happen even in the desert,
and 7years of plenty
can lead not to sure plenty,
but to 7years of famine .]

Genesis 42:
[. Egypt has the only grain in reach
and Joseph is manager of it,
because he is such a good interpreter
and could see the need to save .
. his brothers come to him for grain,
and he fakes some trickery by them
then demands to see their family
as proof of their story .
. the house of Israel comes to Egypt .]

Genesis 46

2 And God said to Israel,
go down to Egypt without fear,
for I will make a great nation of you there:
I will go down with you to Egypt,
and I will see that you come back again,
and at your death Joseph will put his hands on your eyes.
30
And Israel said to Joseph,
Now that I have seen you living again,
I am ready for death.
33
Now when Pharaoh sends for you and says, What is your business?
You are to say,
Your servants have been keepers of cattle
from our early days up to now, like our fathers;
in this way you will be able to
have the land of Goshen for yourselves;
because in the eyes of the Egyptians,
keepers of sheep are unclean.

Genesis 47
6 And Jacob and his sons came to Joseph in Egypt,
and Pharaoh, king of Egypt, said to Joseph,
Your father and brothers have come to you;
all the land of Egypt is before you;
let your father and your brothers
have the best of the land for their resting-place.

Genesis 48
3
And on Jacob’s death bed he said to Joseph,
El Shaddai [God, the Ruler of all],
came to me in a vision at Luz in the land of Canaan,
and gave me his blessing,
4 And said to me,
Truly, I will make you fertile and give you increase
and will make of you a great family of nations:
and I will give this land to your seed
after you to be their heritage for ever.
5 And now your two sons who came to birth in Egypt
before I came to you here, are mine;
Efrayim[Ephraim] and M’nasheh [Manasseh] will be mine,
in the same way as Reuben and Simeon are.
[1st and 2nd sons of Leah, the 2nd wife]
6
And any other offspring which you have after them,
will be yours, and will be named after their brothers
in their heritage.
13
Then taking Ephraim with his right hand,
Joseph put him at Israel’s left side,
and with his left hand
he put Manasseh at Israel’s right side,
placing them near him.
14
And Israel, stretching out his right hand,
put it on the head of Ephraim, the younger,
and his left hand on the head of Manasseh,
crossing his hands on purpose,
for [19: Manasseh will certainly
become a nation and a great one;
but his younger brother will be greater than he,
and his seed will become a great family of nations. ]
15
And he gave Joseph a blessing, saying,
May the God to whom my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, gave worship,
the God who has taken care of me all my life till this day,
16
The angel who has been my saviour from all evil,
send his blessing on these children:
and let my name be given to them
— and the name of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac —
and let them become a great nation in the earth.
20
So he gave them his blessing that day,
saying,
You will be the sign of blessing in Israel,
for they will say, May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh;
and he put Ephraim before Manasseh.
21
Then Israel said to Joseph, Now my death is near;
but God will be with you,
guiding you back to the land of your fathers.
22
And I have given you more than your brothers,
even Shechem as your heritage,
which I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow.

Genesis 49:1-28. fate of 12 tribes of Israel

And Jacob[Ya’akov] sent for his sons,
to give them news of their fate in future times:
Come near, O sons of Jacob
[“he who follows upon the heels of one”],
and give ear to the words of your father:
Isra’el [“who prevails with El*”]
*: El means “Father of all gods” .
[. Jacob is renamed Isra’el by g-d in genesis 32 .]
–[3.16:
most of these children spawn
what the book of Revelations says are
“servants of our God”
(revelation`servants#1-12);
their order in that listing is noted .]

[ ignoring taboo? disinherited .]
1st son (via Leah):
— revelation`servant#2 —
Reuben[Re’uven], you are my oldest son,
the first-fruit of my strength,
first in pride and first in power:
But because you were uncontrolled,
the first place will not be yours;
for you went up to your father’s bed,
[ had sex with a stepmother ]
even his bride-bed, and made it unclean.

[ secrets are for deceit and force ? cursed .]
2nd and 3rd sons (via Leah):
— revelation`servant#{7, 8} —
Simeon[Shim’on] “Hearkening; listening”
and Levi “Attached” are brothers;
deceit and force are their secret designs.
Take no part in their secrets, O my soul;
keep far away, O my heart, from their meetings;
for in their wrath they put men to death,
and for their pleasure even oxen were wounded.
A curse on their passion for it was bitter;
and on their wrath for it was cruel.
I will let their heritage in Jacob be broken up,
driving them from their places in Israel.
[3.15:
. this tirade against secrecy is quite ironic;
because, Levi’s descendants would officially be
his entire nation’s priest class;
and, during the 2nd Temple era,
the priests were like royalty;
because they would become client states of
empires who allowed no local governance,
so the priests filled in the gap .
2-camping secrecy:
. it was only by the secret designs of a Levite
that their greatest prophet, Moses,
could have survived the Egyptians:
. he would be put into a floating crib
where Egyptian women would adopt him,
without knowing he was on their kill list
(all male hebrew babies).]

[ policing your haters? greatest longevity ]
4th son (via Leah):
— revelation`servant#1 —
To you, Judah[Y’hudah],
will your brothers give praise:
your hand will be on the neck of your haters;
your father’s sons will
go down to the earth before you.
[ some translate this as
“bow down before you”,
but “down to the earth” means death,
so it means:
you will outlive all your brothers .]
Judah is a young lion;
like a lion full of meat
you have become great, my son;
now he takes his rest like a lion stretched out
and like an old lion;
by whom will his sleep be broken?
The rod of authority will not be taken from Judah,
and he will not be without a law-giver,
till he comes who has the right to it,
and the peoples will put themselves under his rule.
Knotting his ass’s cord to the vine,
and his young ass to the best vine;
washing his robe in wine,
and his clothing in the blood of grapes:
His eyes will be dark with wine,
and his teeth white with milk.

[ home by the sea? harbour for ships .]
10th son (via Leah):
— revelation`servant#10 —
The resting-place of Zebulun[Z’vulun]
will be by the sea, and he will be a harbour for ships;
the edge of his land will be by Zidon[Tzidon].

[ lazy? enslaved .]
9th son(via Leah):
— revelation`servant#9 —
Issachar[Yissakhar] is a strong ass[donkey]
stretched out among the [sheep] flocks:
15 And he saw that rest was good
and the land was pleasing;
so he let them put weights on his back
and became a servant.

[ “judges” his own ? a snake cursing the horsemen]
5th son(via Rachel’s servant):
— NOT LISTED as a revelation`servant —
Dan will be the judge of his people,
as one of the tribes of Israel.
17
May Dan be a snake in the way,
a horned snake by the road,
biting the horse’s foot
so that the horseman has a fall.
18
I have been waiting for your
salvation[deliverance], O ADONAI.

[. “judgement” Dan was named in reference to
Rachel’s belief that she had gained a child
as the result of a judgment from God .
Rachel remained unable to conceive,
and had to offer her maidservant in her place .
. a prophet is one who judges his own;
Dan would be acting as a prophet, like Jesus .

Samson as Dan’s judgement:

. Dan eventually spawned Samson;
and, in remembering Samson’s embarrassments,
he was said to have “judged” Israel
— true to his forefather’s name: “Judgement” .
(Judges 15:20, Judges 16:31).
3.17: 6.28:
. according to the Illuminati conspiracy theory,
Samson’s story is similar to Israel’s End Times:
. the Illuminati is secretly governing
not just USA, UK, and Israel
but also Russia;
and will be in control of both sides
in the game of World War III;
destroying even their own nations
in order to bring down their enemies:
Western Christianity(USA, UK)
Eastern Christianity(Russia),
Islam(the Middle East)
— even Judaism(Israel) will be judged —
leaving only the bunkered elite .
. the tribe of Dan settled the Americas,
as well as the European royalty;
and could be members of the illuminati;
hence, Dan literally will judge Israel .
Kings of the East:
. about 1000 years before Columbus,
the tribe of Dan colonized America,
and interbred with the First Americans
who are genetically from India-China;
and, while Israel dominates USA politics now,
when USA hits Iran to protect Israel,
Dan-India-China will Judge USA,
— causing Israel’s horse to stumble .
4.21:
. Samson persists in sleeping with the enemy,
a woman who is obviously trying to
deliver him to the enslavers;
similarly,
USA knows 9-11 was an inside job;
because, they saw a symmetrical explosion
that could only have been a
controlled demolition
yet they appear to believe
when told it was a jet fire collapse;
therefore, USA is sleeping with
a known shadow gov’t,
hooked by dreams of national stability,
just like Samson was hooked by his lover’s charms .]

[ named “luck” ? chases troops ]
7th son(via Leah’s servant):
— revelation`servant#3 —
Gad, an army will come against him,
but he will come down on them in their flight .

[ replaces bread with fat? cook for kings .]
8th son(via Leah’s servant):
— revelation`servant#4 —
Asher’s bread is fat;
he gives delicate food for kings.
[– indeed,
some fats are healthier than bread .]

[ named “My struggle”? bearing beautiful children .]
6th son (via Rachel’s servant):
— revelation`servant#5 —
Naphtali[Naftali] is a roe* let loose,
giving fair young ones.
*: [ small Eurasian deer ]

[ “May Yahweh add” Yosef (Joseph)
11th son (via Rachel):
— revelation`servant#11 —
— son#1 is Manasseh “who makes to forget”
(revelation`servant#6)
— son#2 is Ephraim “double fruitfulness”
(NOT LISTED as a revelation`servant
. Ephraim was blessed by Jacob
against Joseph’s wishes)
. Joseph sold to slavers by his own brothers,
but he’s made a ruler of scarce food in Egypt,
and his brothers would later bow to him;
also,
his Ephraim offspring would lead the
catastrophic division of Israel .]
Joseph is a young ox,
whose steps are turned to the fountain;
He was troubled by the archers;
they sent out their arrows against him,
cruelly wounding him:
But their bows were broken by a strong one,
and the cords of their arms were cut
by the Strength of Jacob,
by the name of the Stone of Israel:
Even by the God of your father, who will be your help,
and by El Shaddai [god, the Ruler of all],
who will make you full with blessings from heaven on high,
blessings of the deep stretched out under the earth,
[rare metals and gems, money]
blessings of the breasts and of the fertile body:
on the brow of the prince among his brothers.
Blessings of sons, old and young, to the father:
blessings of the oldest mountains
and the fruit of the eternal hills:
let them come on the head of Joseph,
on the crown of him who was
separate from his brothers.

[ “son on the right hand” Binyamin
— synonymous with Judah the long-lived — ]
12th son (via Rachel):
— revelation`servant#12 —
Benjamin[Binyamin] is a wolf, searching for meat:
in the morning he takes his food,
and in the evening
he makes division of what he has taken.
[ such a prolific hunter is he,
taking prey all day,
and distributing it all evening .
— reminds me of USA’s style of sharing .]

3.17: here’s their ordering ready for war:

(just after release from bondage)
46,500 Reuben — son#1
59,300 Simeon — son#2
— son#3 Levi tribe were priests, not warriors .
45,650     Gad — son#7 chases troops
74,600 Judah — son#4 the forever tribe
54,400 Issachar — son#9 the lazy
57,400 Zebulun — son#10
— Joseph is son#11 has 2 tribes: —
40,500 Joseph’s Ephraim — blessed by Jacob
32,200 Joseph’s Manasseh — blessed by Joseph
35,400     Benjamin son#12 — didn’t conspire against Joseph
62,700     Dan — son#5 compared to snakes
41,500     Asher — son#8 known for cooking
53,400 Naphtali — son#6 known for fair children .
. counted in the waste place of Sinai .

Laban has the keys to “greatness” in Egypt:

. when Jacob meets Laban
he falls in love with younger daughter Rachel;
and agrees to work 7 years for the marriage;
but just like Jacob tricked his father,
Rachel’s elder sister tricks Jacob
into offering a marriage he didn’t intend .
. now he has to work 14 years
in order to marry both of them .
. in response to this trickery,
Jacob intends to give his blessings
to Rachel’s first born,
even though Leah gave children first .
. the resulting jealousy causes disaster,
as they enslave Rachel’s first born
and thereby start the Egypt story .
. on the other hand,
g-d tells Jacob not to fear a move to Egypt;
because, that is how he becomes a great nation;
and, Moses is born there .

Exodus 1
6
Then Joseph came to his end,
as did all his brothers;
And the children of Israel were fertile,
increasing very greatly in numbers and in power;
and Egypt’s land was full of them.
8
Now a new king came to power in Egypt,
who had no knowledge of Joseph.
[. he sought various way to weaken Israel,
including forced abortion of their males .]

Exodus 2
. the house of Levi spawns Moshe [Moses].

Moses gets called:

7 And ADONAI said,
Truly, I have seen the grief of my people in Egypt,
and their cry because of their cruel masters
has come to my ears;
for I have knowledge of their sorrows;
8
And I have come down to
take them out of the hands of the Egyptians,
guiding them out of that land
into a good land and wide,
into a land flowing with milk and honey;
into the place of the Kena’ani[Canaanite]
Hitti[Hittite] Emori[Amorite] P’rizi[Perizzite]
[Hivi]Hivite and the Y’vusi[Jebusite].
For now, truly,
the cry of the children of Israel
has come to me,
and I have seen the cruel behaviour of the Egyptians
to them.
Come, then, and I will send you to Pharaoh,
so that you may take my people, the children of Israel,
out of Egypt.
11
And Moses said to God,
Who am I to go to Pharaoh
and take the children of Israel out of Egypt?
12
And he said,
Truly I will be with you;
and this will be the sign to you
that I have sent you:
when you have taken the children of Israel out of Egypt,
you will give worship to God on this mountain.
13
And Moses said to God,
When I come to the children of Israel
and say to them,
The God of your fathers has sent me to you:
and they say to me,
What is his name?
what am I to say to them?
14
And God said to him,
Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh [I AM WHAT I AM]:
Say to the children of Israel,
Ehyeh [I AM] has sent me to you.
18
And they will give ear to your voice:
and you, with the chiefs of Israel,
will go to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt,
and say to him,
ADONAI, the God of the Hebrews,
has come to us: let us then go three days’ journey
into the waste land
to make an offering to the Lord our God.
19
And I am certain that the king of Egypt
will not let you go without being forced.
But I will put out my hand and overcome Egypt
with all the wonders
which I will do among them:
and after that he will let you go.
21
And I will give this people
grace in the eyes of the Egyptians,
so that when you go out
you will go out with your hands full.
For every woman will get from her neighbour
and from the woman living in her house,
ornaments of silver and gold, and clothing;
and you will put them on your sons and your daughters;
you will take the best of their goods from the Egyptians.
[3.16:
. reminds of the global capitalists,
just before they launch wwIII from bunkers .]

. the Egyptians will be persuaded by magic .

brother Aaron will be your tongue:

10
And Moshe [Moses] said to ADONAI,
O Adonai, I am not a man of words;
I have never been so, and am not now,
even after what you have said to your servant:
for talking is hard for me,
and I am slow of tongue.
11
And ADONAI said to him,
Who has made man’s mouth?
who takes away a man’s voice or hearing,
or makes him seeing or blind?
Is it not I, ADONAI?
So go now,
and I will be with your mouth,
teaching you what to say.
13
And he said,
O Lord, send, if you will,
by the hand of anyone whom it seems
good to you to send.
14
And ADONAI was angry with Moses, and said,
Is there not Aaron,
your brother, the Levite?
To my knowledge he is good at talking.
And now he is coming out to you:
and when he sees you
he will be glad in his heart.
15
Let him give ear to your voice,
and you will put my words in his mouth;
and I will be with your mouth and with his,
teaching you what you have to do.
16
And he will do the talking for you to the people:
he will be to you as a mouth
and you will be to him as God.
17
And take in your hand this rod
with which you will do the signs.

And God said to Moses:
I am Yahweh:
3 I let myself be seen by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
as El Shaddai[god the Ruler of all];
but they had no knowledge of my name
Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh [ADONAI, Yahweh].
4
And I made an agreement with them,
to give them the land of Canaan,
the land of their wanderings.

Exodus 6-7:
28
And on the day when the word of ADONAI
came to Moses in the land of Egypt,
The Lord said to Moses,
I am ADONAI: say to Pharaoh, king of Egypt,
everything I am saying to you.
30
And Moses said to ADONAI,
My lips are unclean;
how is it possible that
Pharaoh will give me a hearing?
1
And ADONAI said to Moses,
See I have made you a god to Pharaoh,
and Aaron your brother will be your prophet.
2
Say whatever I give you orders to say:
and Aaron your brother will give word to Pharaoh
to let the children of Israel go out of his land.
3
And I will make Pharaoh’s heart hard,
and my signs and wonders will be
increased in the land of Egypt.
4
But Pharaoh will not give ear to you,
and I will put my hand on Egypt,
and take my armies, my people, the children of Israel,
out of Egypt, after great punishments.
5
And the Egyptians will see that I am ADONAI,
when my hand is stretched out over Egypt,
and I take the children of Israel out from among them.

Exodus 10-11
28
And Pharaoh said to [Aaron-Moses],
Go away from me, take care that you
come not again before me;
for the day when you see my face again
will be your last.
And Moses said, You say truly;
I will not see your face again.
1
And ADONAI said to Moses,
I will send one more punishment on Pharaoh and on Egypt;
after that he will let you go;
and when he does let you go,
he will not keep one of you back,
but will send you out by force.
2
So go now and give orders to the people that every man and every woman
is to get from his or her neighbour
ornaments of silver and of gold.
3
And ADONAI gave the people grace
in the eyes of the Egyptians.
For the man Moses was highly honoured
in the land of Egypt,
by Pharaoh’s servants and the people.
4
And Moses said, This is what ADONAI says:
About the middle of the night
I will go out through Egypt:
And death will come to
every mother’s first male child
in all the land of Egypt,
from the child of Pharaoh on his seat of power,
to the child of the servant-girl crushing the grain;
and the first births of all the cattle.
6 And there will be a great cry
through all the land of Egypt,
such as never has been or will be again.
7
But against the children of Israel, man or beast,
not so much as the tongue of a dog will be moved:
so that you may see how ADONAI makes a division
between Israel and the Egyptians.
8
And all these your servants will come to me,
going down on their faces before me and saying,
Go out, and all your people with you:
and after that I will go out.
And he went away from Pharaoh
burning with wrath.

Pesach [Passover]:

[ the 14th day of the first Jewish month
(in 2013 it is March 25 – April 2)]
12
For on that night
I will go through the land of Egypt,
sending death on every first male child,
of man and of beast,
and judging all the gods of Egypt:
I am ADONAI.
29
And in the middle of the night
ADONAI sent death on every first male child in the land of Egypt,
from the child of Pharaoh on his seat of power
to the child of the prisoner in the prison;
and the first births of all the cattle.
30
Then Pharaoh got up in the night,
he and all his servants and all the Egyptians;
and a great cry went up from Egypt;
for there was not a house where
someone was not dead.
31
And he sent for Moses and Aaron by night,
and said,
Get up and go out from among my people,
you and the children of Israel;
go and give worship to ADONAI
as you have said.
And take your flocks and your herds as you have said,
and be gone; and give me your blessing.
33
And the Egyptians were forcing the people on,
to get them out of the land quickly;
for they said, We are all dead men.

43
And ADONAI said to Moses and Aaron,
This is the law of the Passover:
–[ describing who may share in the
Pesach lamb recipe ]–
no man who is not an Israelite is to take of it:
44
But every man’s owned servants may take of it,
when he has had circumcision.
. foreign guests and rented servants
may not take part in it.
46
. [the oven-baked unmarked male under 1-year-old
lamb (sheep or goat) garnished with
unleavened bread and bitter-tasting plants
eaten hurriedly while dressed for a journey ]
is to be taken in one house;
not a bit of the flesh is to be
taken out of the house,
[leftovers must be burned in fireplace]
and no bone of it may be broken.
47
All Israel is to keep the feast.
48
And if a foreigner is living with you,
and has a desire to keep the Pesach to ADONAI,
let all the males of his family undergo circumcision,
and then let him come near and keep it;
for he will then be as one of your people;
but no one without circumcision may keep it.
49
The law is the same for native Israelite
and for your live-in non-Israelite guests .

Exodus 13
1 And ADONAI said to Moses,
Let the first male child of every mother
among the children of Israel
be kept holy [set aside] for me,
even the first male birth among man or beast;
for it is mine.
12
You are to put on one side for the Lord
every mother’s first male child,
the first-fruit of her body,
and the first young one of every beast;
every male is holy to the Lord.
13
And for the young of an ass
you may give a lamb in payment,
[“redeem with a lamb”]
or if you will not make payment for it,
its neck is to be broken;
but for all the first sons among your children,
let payment be made.
14
And when your son says to you in time to come,
What is the reason for this?
say to him, By the strength of his hand
ADONAI took us out of Egypt,
out of the prison-house:
And when Pharaoh made his heart hard
and would not let us go,
the Lord sent death
on all the first sons in Egypt,
of man and of beast:
and so every first male who comes to birth
is offered to the Lord;
but for all the first of my sons
I redeem [give a price].
[3.16:
. that’s what judeo-chrisitian “redemption” is:
when you’re expected to be sacrificed
and something else is given .]

. songs for god the warrior .
. finding man [manna]

Amalek came and made war on Israel:
15
Then Moses put up an altar
and gave it the name of Yahweh-nissi:
[ADONAI is my banner/miracle]
16
For he said, ADONAI has taken his oath
that there will be war with Amalek
from generation to generation.

3 months after freedom:

3
and the voice of ADONAI came to Moses
from the mountain, saying,
Say to the family of Jacob,
and give word to the children of Israel:
4
You have seen what I did to the Egyptians,
and how I took you, as on eagles’ wings,
guiding you to myself.
5
If now you will truly give ear to my voice
and keep my agreement,
you will be my special property
out of all the peoples:
for all the earth is mine:
And you will be a kingdom of priests to me,
and a holy nation.
These are the words which you are to say
to the children of Israel.

the commandments are given:
[ and the first is: ]
3
You are to have no other gods but me.
4
You are not to make an image or picture
of anything in heaven or on the earth
or in the waters under the earth:
5
You may not go down on your faces before them
or give them worship:
for I, ADONAI your God,
am a God who will not give his honour to another;
and I will send punishment on the children
for the wrongdoing of their fathers,
to the third and fourth generation of my haters;
[conversely]
I will have mercy through a thousand generations
on those who have love for me
and keep my laws.
7
You are not use for an evil purpose
the name of ADONAI your God
whoever does will be judged a sinner
by ADONAI .

ADONAI said to Moses:
8
And let them make me a holy place,
so that I may be ever present among them.
9
Make the House[tabernacle] and everything in it
from the designs which I will give you.

the hard road going home:

1
And ADONAI said to Moses,
Go forward from this place,
to that land I promised to the seed of
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
And I will send an angel before you,
driving out all the current inhabitants
(Canaanite, Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite
Hivite, and the Jebusite).
3
Go up to that land
flowing with milk and honey;
but I will not go up among you,
for you are a stiff-necked people,
for fear that I send destruction on you
while you are on the way.
(5: if I come among you, even for a minute,
I will send destruction on you;
so take off all your ornaments,
so that I may see what to do with you).
4
Hearing this bad news
the people were full of grief,
and no one put on ornaments.

And ADONAI said,
10
See, this is what I will undertake:
before the eyes of your people I will do wonders,
such as have not been done in
all the earth or in any nation:
and all your people will see the work of ADONAI,
for what I am about to do for you
is greatly to be feared.
11
Take care to do the orders
which I give you today;
I will send out from before you
[all current inhabitants of the Promised land];
12
But take care, and do not make
any agreement with the people of
the land where you are going,
for it will be a cause of sin to you.
13
But their altars are to be overturned
and their pillars broken and their images cut down:
14
For you are to be worshippers of no other god:
for ADONAI is a God who will
not give his honour to another.
15
So see that you make no agreement
with the people of the land,
and do not go after their gods,
or take part in their offerings,
or be guests at their feasts,
Or take their daughters for your sons;
for when their daughters give worship before their gods,
they will make your sons take part with them.

27
Put all these words in writing;
for on them is based the agreement
which I will make with you.
28
And Moses put in writing on the stones
the words of the agreement,
the ten rules of the law.

the Tabernacle is completed:

30
. on the plate for the holy crown
were cut these words,
HOLY TO THE LORD.
[“Set apart for ADONAI”]
32
So all the work on it was done
for the House of the Tent of meeting;
as ADONAI had given orders to Moses,
so the children of Israel did it.
33
Then they took the House[tabernacle] to Moses,
the tent with all the things for it;
… The ark of the law, with its rods and its cover;
The table, with all its vessels and the holy bread; … .
43
Then Moses, when he saw all their work
and saw that they had done
everything as ADONAI had said,
gave them his blessing.

on the Jewish new years:

. the Lord said to Moses,
you are to put up the House of the Tent of meeting.
[the tabernacle, the tent of meeting.]
And inside it put the ark of the law[testimony],
hanging the veil before it.
33
… So Moses made the work complete.
Then the cloud came down covering the Tent of meeting,
and the House was full of the glory of ADONAI;
So that Moses was not able to go into it .
36
And whenever the cloud was taken up from the House,
the children of Israel went forward on their journey:
But while the cloud was there,
they made no move till it was taken up.
38
For all during the daylight hours,
the cloud of ADONAI was resting on the House,
and at night there was fire in the cloud,
lighting the way before their eyes,
[ so they could see where they were going
in the cool shade of desert’s dark; ]
and so it was through all their journeys.

. so what’s for dinner? (what’s allowed).
[ there’s a lot good not allowed,
but humans aren’t mentioned?
I’m sure that was proscribed earlier …]

. but here’s how to breed humans:
. no multi-marrying the related
(broadly defines incest)
and no homosexuality or birth control
(during unclean, infertile periods).
[. some of these were done by prior family,
and were found to cause trouble .]

circumcision of fruit trees:

23
And when you have come into the land,
and have put in all sorts of fruit-trees,
their fruit will be as if
they had not had circumcision,
and for three years their fruit
may not be used for food.
[3.17:
. cicumcision inhibits masturbation;
and, by inhibition of sex generally
there is an increasing of the testosterone;
likewise in a tree,
not pruning it or taking from it
will strengthen its roots
(let the nearby ground have the fruit).]
24
And in the fourth year all the fruit will be holy
as a praise-offering to ADONAI.
25
But in the fifth year you may take the fruit
and the increase of it for your food:
I am ADONAI your God.

. here is the next verse:
blood — spiritual and physical:
Nothing with its blood in it
may be used for food;
–[ and then what’s this in same sentence?: –]
you may not make use of strange arts,
or go in search of signs and wonders.
[3.17:
. divination or fortune-telling related to blood?
reminds of the spiritual blood,
circulation of thoughts between people,
and between them and the supernatural;
not that it doesn’t exist:
it’s simply not allowed .]
27
your facial hair may not be cut off.
[3.17:
. just as blood circulates nutrients,
the naked face circulates your identity .]

50th year Jubilee and real estate law:

10
And let this fiftieth year be kept holy,
and say publicly that everyone in the land
is free from debt: it is the Jubilee,
and every man may go back to his heritage
and to his family.
23
No exchange of land may be for ever,
for the land is mine,
and you are as my guests,
living with me for a time.
24
Wherever there is property in land,
the owner is to have
the right of getting it back.
[right of redemption]
28
But if he is not able to get it back for himself,
then it will be kept by him who gave a price for it,
till the year of Jubilee;
and in that year it will go back to its first owner
and he will have his property again.
[3.17:
. are there any circumcised Americans
giving their land back to the natives?
the g-d of the circumcised would reply:
America’s natives worshipped strange gods;
the land belongs to the god of the circumcised .
. we could avoid a lot of bloodshed
by letting eugenics decide our numbers,
so there was plenty of land for all .]

Jubilee applies to owned servants:

47
And if one from another nation
living among you gets wealth,
and your countryman, at his side, becomes poor
and gives himself for money to the man from another nation
or to one of his family;
48
After he has given himself
he has the right to be made free, for a price,
by one of his brothers,
49
Or his father’s brother, or the son of
his father’s brother, or any near relation;
or if he gets money, he may make himself free.
50
And let the years be numbered
from the time when he gave himself to his owner
till the year of yovel[Jubilee],
and the price given for him
will be in relation to the number of years,
on the scale of the payment of a servant.

12 tribes drafted for soldiering:

20
[ numbers per tribe of ]
every male of twenty years old and over,
who was able to go to war:
46,500 Reuben — son#1
59,300 Simeon — son#2
— son#3 Levi tribe were priests, not warriors .
45,650     Gad — son#7 chases troops
74,600 Judah — son#4 the forever tribe
54,400 Issachar — son#9 the lazy
57,400 Zebulun — son#10
— Joseph is son#11 has 2 tribes: —
40,500 Joseph’s son#2:Ephraim — blessed by Jacob
32,200 Joseph’s son#1:Manasseh — blessed by Joseph
35,400     Benjamin son#12 — didn’t conspire against Joseph
62,700     Dan — son#5 compared to snakes
41,500     Asher — son#8 known for cooking
53,400 Naphtali — son#6 known for fair children .
. counted in the waste place of Sinai .

. Moses’ was replaced by Y’hoshua[Joshua];
they cross the Jordan river
(made dry just like the Red Sea)
and, got circumcised:
5
All the people who came out of Egypt
had undergone circumcision;
but those born in the waste land
on their journey from Egypt
had not been circumcised .
6
For the children of Israel
were wandering for forty years,
till all the Egypt-born soldiers were dead,
because
they did not give ear to the voice of ADONAI:
whereupon ADONAI said, with an oath,
that he would not let them see the Promise land
flowing with milk and honey.
9
And ADONAI said to Y’hoshua[Joshua],
Today the shame of Egypt has been rolled away from you.
So that place was named Gilgal [“rolling”]
to this day.

rolling! let the Promise begin:

. the era from the death of Joshua
to the rise of the monarchy
is covered by the book of Judges .
[6.28: systematic invasion:
. . g-d invited the Hebrews to wealthy Egypt,
in order to easily increase their numbers
to a point where they would be able to
take the Promised land by overwhelming force .
. this was repeated in the 20th century
for the creation of the state of Israel .]
[4.12:
. this chapter is sometimes viewed as being about
Hebrews ethnically cleansing the Promised Land;
but it should be viewed as a composite novel:
because, most of humanity, since ancient times,
have solved their lack of resource planning
by invading other nations for land or tribute .
. this story may as well be a composite of
the world’s standard operating procedure!
. what’s most notable about this chapter
is that it shows how even those who are
respectful of g-d and the law
are still finding a reason to violate others;
because, of course, they offended the god .
. this is a relevant, valuable story today
because the supernatural forces such as g-d,
continue to influence our politics;
and, our children should be warned about
what will continue to happen in the future;
hence, Ark-investing includes a strong defense,
and having very deep underground cities .]

3.16: archetype of the whole world:

. the natural cycle of man is
# find abundance by good weather
or increases in technology;
# reproduce to entirely consume that abundance,
# get met with leaner weather
or fewer jobs from increased in technology
which cannot support so many people
and results in crushing poverty .
# revolt against the poverty or “inequality”
and demand redistribution of wealth
by invading, hijacking, or looting .
. the irony of the communist revolt
is that it could not have happened without
the wealth that capitalism gave to workers:
capitalism increased their numbers,
and their numbers cheapened their value
in the employment market .
. it also quite varied the pay scale
according to skills,
so that the overpaid skilled then overbreed,
but many of their offspring are not so skilled,
or there are not that many skilled jobs anyway .
. if they would all underpopulate
then there wouldn’t be enough unskilled labor,
and they could then demand higher wages
due to the scarcity of their resource .
. well-treated people always out-breed
the limited resource that is treating them well;
and, that’s why the wealthiest nations
have the most poverty:
they feed everyone the most;
and this creates irrational exhuberance
to habitually spend and reproduce
instead of compulsively saving one’s earnings .]

United States of Israel:

. the story of Israel and Judah
begins with their being threatened by barbarians,
and finding strength in unity .

. around 1020 BCE,
under extreme threat from foreign peoples,
the tribes agreed form the first united
Kingdom of Israel.
. prophet Samuel anointed Saul (tribe of Benjamin)
as the first king c. 1026 BCE .

. in 1009–1000 BC,
David became the third King of Israel;
and, established Jerusalem as the capitol .
. he created a strong unified Israelite monarchy.
David suffered a number of rebellions by Israel,
successfully suppressing each one.

Under David’s successor, Solomon,
the United Monarchy experienced a period of
peace and prosperity, and cultural development.
Much public building took place,
including the First Temple in Jerusalem.

. in c. 930 BCE the union failed:
Solomon is replaced by his son, Rehoboam,
who refused to reduce taxes .
[3.4:
. the Messiah is said to descend from Solomon;
I wonder if symbolically
any tactful tax collector would do?
3.14:
. Jesus points out that
David referred to the Messiah as Lord;
so, would he be talking about a descendant ?
6.28:
. high tech will provide the superpower
that can bring a saving world unity .
. that power takes control after Armageddon:
the fight to secure peace in Israel .]

. the malcontents sent for Egypt’s Jeroboam,
who was not of the Davidic line .
The Tribe of Ephraim
and all Israel raised the old cry,
“Every man to his tents, O Israel”.
Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem,
and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel .
After the revolt,
those tribes loyal to the house of David.
included Judah and then Benjamin .
Most of the non-Israelite provinces fell away,
becoming independent .

. the division looked like this:
Jerusalem was the northern tip of
the kingdom of Judah,
and above it was the kingdom of Israel
sometimes refered to as Ephraim
with Samaria as its capital .

Jeroboam II, king of Israel (786–746),
defeats the Arameans of Damascus (II Kings 14:25–27).
after which there was a brief period of
peace and prosperity
that both Israel and Judah enjoyed
This prosperity led to [overpopulation, and]
various forms of social injustice,
(landowners oppressing the abundant life).

prophet Hosea, lived 780-725 BC .

prophet Amos in 750 BC .

. David wasn’t the only one with eyes for
building unification by military force;
but, the next attempt would be disasterous:

. “open-eyed” Pekah was a captain in the army
under king Pekahiah of Israel .
. in 752 BC, Pekah reigned over Gilead,
then by his assassination of Pekahiah
he ruled both regions, eyeing Judah next .

prophet Isaiah active 740 – 701BC .

Judah thinks itself safe because of its
covenant relationship with God.
However, Isaiah tells Judah
that the covenant cannot protect them
when they have broken it
— by the worship of other gods …
Isaiah 1:
1 The vision of Yesha’yahu[Isaiah], the son of Amotz[Amoz],
which he saw about Judah and Jerusalem,
in the days of ‘Uziyahu[Uzziah], Yotam[Jotham],
Achaz[Ahaz], and Y’chizkiyahu[Hezekiah],
kings of Y’hudah[Judah].
2
Give ear, O heavens, and you, O earth,
to the word of ADONAI:
I have taken care of my children till they became men,
but their hearts have been turned away from me.
Even the ox has knowledge of its owner,
and the ass knows where its master puts the food:
but Isra’el has no such knowledge,
my people give no thought to me.
4
O nation full of sin, a people weighted down with crime,
a generation of evil-doers, false-hearted children:
they have gone away from ADONAI,
they have no respect for the Holy One of Isra’el,
their hearts are turned back from him.
21
The upright town has become untrue;
there was a time when her judges gave right decisions,
when righteousness had a resting-place in her,
but now she is full of those who take men’s lives.
17
Take pleasure in well-doing;
let your ways be upright, keep down the cruel,
give a right decision for the child who has no father,
see to the cause of the widow.
19
If you will give ear to my word and do it,
the good things of the land will be yours;
But if your hearts are turned against me,
I will send destruction on you by the sword;
so ADONAI has said.

perhaps Isaiah sugar-coats the god:

[3.5: 4.16:
we seem never able to admit that our god
could have an agenda beyond that of
our own near-term interests .
. it really didn’t matter how Israel acted;
because, the age of empire-building had begun,
and there would be a continuous risk of enslavement
unless they managed to reposition themselves
into the elite class who was doing the enslaving .
. during Isaiah’s time it was Assyria
who was doing the empire-building;
it took down the region east of the mediterranean;
then the Roman empire would come;
so, Israel didn’t have a chance,
unless they not only didn’t repel eachother
but also bonded with other cultures
(that would include melting into other religions)
in order to form superpowers themselves .
. it was their very idea of being good
— staying true to their cultural roots —
that was going to be enslaving them .
. the take-home message is that
when an empire first meets you,
they expand simply by collecting taxes;
but later they want cultural integration,
or they want to repurpose your land .
. this is why today’s superpower
is not any particular nation or state,
but the super elite that runs them all
as a hidden government within a government .
. as usual, g-d blesses power and war;
because g-d is not looking for obedience;
g-d is trying to evolve technology,
and build a history we will remember
— one we will never fall back to .
. g-d is a survivor, even beyond sun death;
g-d will guide us to new stars,
after this Earth birth is complete .]

Isaiah 2: the Apocalypse [years 2014-2015 ? ]:

about Judah and Yerushalayim[Jerusalem]:
2
And it will come about in the acharit-hayamim[last days],
that the mountain of ADONAI [the Temple or its effects]
will be placed on the top of the mountains,
[Jerusalem holds the Temple on a very high mountain]
and be lifted up over the hills;
and all Goyim[nations] will come to it.
3
And the peoples will say, Come, and let us go
up to the mountain of ADONAI,
to the house of the God of Ya’akov[Jacob]:
and he will give us knowledge of his ways,
and we will be guided by his word;
for out of Tziyon[Zion] Torah[the law] will go out,
and the word of ADONAI from Jerusalem.
4
And he will be the judge between the nations,
and the peoples will be ruled by his decisions:
and their swords will be turned into plough-blades,
and their spears into vine-knives:
no longer will the nations be
turning their swords against one another,
and the knowledge of war will be gone for ever.

5 O family of Jacob, come,
and let us go in the light of the Lord.
6
For you, O Lord, have
given up your people, the family of Jacob,
because they are full of the evil ways of the east,
and make use of secret arts[sorcery]
like the P’lishtim[Philistines],
and are friends with the children of
strange countries [guided by foreign gods or laws .]
7
. their land is full of silver and gold,
and there is no end to their stores;
their land is full of horses,
and there is no end to their carriages.
8
Their land is full of images[idols];
they give worship to the work of their hands,
even to that which their fingers have made.
9
And the poor man’s head is bent,
[forced to worship this evil culture]
and the great[rich] man goes down on his face
[shows extreme gratitude to this culture]:
for this cause
there will be no forgiveness for their sin.
10
Go into a hole in the rock,
covering yourselves with dust, in fear of ADONAI,
before the glory of his power.
[ only the deeply bunkered
will feel safe from this war .]
11
The high[arrogant] looks of man will be put to shame,
and the pride of men will be made low,
and, in that day,
only ADONAI will be lifted up .
18
And the images will never be seen again.

Isaiah 6 [739 BC]

1
In the year of King Uzziah’s death [740 or 739 BC]
I saw Adonai … [in] the Temple .
[ in the last year of Uzziah’s reign,
Pekah became king of Israel (north of Judah)].
3
one [of the 6-winged S’rafim]
said in a loud voice to another,
Holy, holy, holy, is ADONAI-Tzva’ot! [Lord of armies]:
all the earth is full of his glory.
5
Then I said, The curse is on me,
and my fate is destruction;
for I am a man of unclean lips,
living among a people of unclean lips;
for my eyes have seen the King, the Lord of armies.
Then a winged one came to me with a burning coal in his hand,
which he had taken from off the altar with tongs.
7
And after touching my mouth with it, he said,
See, your lips have been touched with this;
and your evil is taken away,
and you are made clean from sin.
9
And Adonai said,
Go, and say to this people,
You will go on hearing, but learn nothing;
you will go on seeing, but without getting wiser.
10
Make the hearts of this people fat,
and let them be deaf and blind
for fear that [otherwise]
they may be turned to me and made well
(from having their hearts become wise).
11
how long?
Till the towns are waste and unpeopled,
and the houses have no men,
and the land becomes completely waste,
12
And ADONAI has taken men far away,
and there are wide waste places in the land.

Isaiah 7 [Judah invites Assyria to Israel:]

. Judah refused to join Israel and Aram
in a revolt against the superpower Assyria;
so, Pekah’s Israel and Aram rataliated by
threatening to invade Judah,
at which point Judah called the Assyrians
who promptly gouged northern Israel;
and, by 720 BC their independence was lost,
many having been taken as slaves .

. Ahaz of Jerusalem, Judah,
is unsuccessfully attacked by an alliance of
# Rezin, king of Aram (capitol in Damascus)
# Pekah, king of [northern] Israel
[predominantly the Ephraim tribe].
2
. the house of David became very afraid
hearing of this alliance .
3
Then the Lord said to Isaiah, tell Ahaz:
Take care and be quiet;
have no fear, and do not let your heart be feeble,
… Because …
7
This is the word of Adonai ELOHIM:
their designs will not come about or be effected.
For the head of Aram is Damascus,
and the head of Damascus is Rezin
(and in 65 years from now
Ephraim [Pekah’s northern Israel] will be broken,
and will no longer be a people):
9
If you will not have faith,
your kingdom will be broken.
10
And Isaiah said again to Ahaz,
Make a request to the Lord your God for a sign,
a sign in the deep places of Sh’ol[the underworld],
or in the high heavens.
12
But Ahaz said,
I will not put the Lord to the test
by making such a request.
13
And [Isaiah] said,
Give ear now, O family of David:
is it not enough that you are driving men to disgust?
will you do the same to my God?
14
For this cause the Lord himself
will give you a sign;
a young woman is now with child,
and she will give birth to a son,
and she will give him the name
‘Immanu El [God is with us].
15
. by the time he is old enough to
make a decision between evil and good,
Butter and honey will be his [only] food,
[the sign of dark times in which
nothing will grow but wild flowers
and weeds fit only for cattle graze on .]
16
For before the child is [of age],
the land whose two kings you are now fearing
will have become waste.
17
ADONAI is invading you with Assyrians;
giving you such a time of trouble
as you have not seen since the days of
the separation of Ephraim[Israel’s northern tribe]
from Judah;
even since the coming of the king of Assyria.
[ they were united under king David,
and then also under his son Solomon,
but Solomon’s tax burden was too great
so, when Solomon’s son wouldn’t lower taxes
the tribe of Ephraim lead a revolt
that split the 10 tribes of Israel from Judah .
. the reason they were united before
was to avoid “such a time of trouble
as you have not seen since the days of …” .]

prophet Micah, active 737-690 BC .

Many northern Israelites escaped slavery
by fleeing south to Judah;
but, tradition would say
Israel utterly lost 10 of its 12 tribes .

. then, c.715 BCE,
the next ruler of Judah, Hezekiah,
was waging war on the Philistine cities and on Edom
even though this might irritate the Assyrians .
He booted Philistines from the Negev desert,
and formed alliances with Ashkelon and Egypt,
in order to make a stand against Assyria’s
efforts to collect tribute [federal taxes].
. prophet Isaiah warns Judah
that it would meet the same fate as Israel;
but, Jerusalem’s Temple was not harmed:
during the attack of Jerusalem the attacker announced
that Hezekiah was deceiving them,
that Yahweh could not deliver Jerusalem
from the king of Assyria;
as proof, He listed the gods of the people
thus far swept away by Sennacherib;
and, then asked,
“Who of all the gods of these countries
has been able to save his land from me?”
During the siege, Hezekiah was in such anguish,
he clad himself in itchy sackcloth;
[a prayer technique in times of mourning];
and the prayers worked!
after 185,000 Assyrians troops died,
the attackers withdrew without securing Jerusalem,
where the Temple was fortressed on a mountain .

Isaiah 8

And the Lord said to
[the prophet Isaiah (Yesha’yahu)]:
Take a great writing-board,
and on it put down in common letters,
Maher-shalal-hash-baz;
[the spoil hurries, the prey speeds along]
and g-d commanded that he would
father a son by that name .
4
For before the child is old enough to say,
Father, or, Mother,
the wealth of Damascus[Aram] and Samaria[Israel]
will be taken away by the king of Assyria.
6
Because [Judah’s people]
will have nothing to do with
the softly-flowing waters of Shiloah,
[heart of the Ephraim hill-country]
and will fear [Aram] and [Ephraim’s Israel]
the Lord will have Assyrians invading them
And overflowing into Judah;
till the waters are up to the neck;
*** and his outstretched wings will be
covering the land from side to side:
‘immanu El [for God is with us].
10
. whatever your plans, they will come to nothing;
give your orders, and they will not be effected:
‘immanu El .
11
For the Lord, with a strong hand,
ordered [Isaiah the prophet]
not to have this people’s lifestyle,
saying,
they know not what to fear
or what to consider holy.
13
But let this be holy to you:
ADONAI-Tzva’ot[god of armies]
and go in fear of that, giving honour to that.
And g-d will be for you a holy place:
but for the two houses of Israel
–[ Ephraim’s Israel vs Judah’s Israel ]
g-d will be like stones on the path
and to the men of Jerusalem,
g-d will be an ensnaring net .

[ prophet Isaiah closes that thought with: ]
16
Let my teaching be kept secret:
and my words be given to my disciples only.
And I will be waiting for g-d,
whose face is veiled from the house of Jacob,
[ the father of Ephraim and Judah ];
and I will be looking for him.
18
See, I and the children whom the Lord has given me,
are for signs and for wonders in Israel
from the Lord of armies,
whose resting-place is in Mount Zion.
19
And when they say to you,
Make request for us
to those who have control of spirits,
and to those wise in secret arts,
who make hollow bird-like sounds;
is it not right for a people to
make request to their gods,
to make request for the living to the dead?
20
Then say to them,
Put your faith in the teaching and the witness.
… If they do not say such things. …
For him there is no dawn. …
21
And he will go through the land
in bitter trouble and in need of food;
and when he is unable to get food,
he will become angry,
cursing his king and his God,
and his eyes will be turned to heaven on high;
22
And he will be looking down on the earth,
and there will be trouble and dark clouds,
black night where there is no seeing.

Isaiah 9: [Jesus will bring unification?]

1 In earlier times
there was little value attached to
the land of Zebulun* and Naphtali*,
–[ they were backwaters behind Asher,
who took all the mediteranean coastline]–
but later these lands were given glory,
by the way of the sea,
on the other side of Yarden[Jordan river]*,
Galil-of-the-Goyim [Galilee of the nations]**.
*:
[ Zebulun is one who eventually resides
by the sea, a harbour for ships;
Naphtali “My struggle” is like a small Eurasian deer
but eventually bears beautiful children .
. the Jordon river is a valley that is
separating modern Israel from trans-Jordan .
. in ancient times,
trans-Jordon was given to the tribes of
Reubin, Gad and half of Menasseh .
**:
Galilee’s Israelite name is
from the Hebrew root galil,
an ultimately unique word for
“district”, and usually “circle” … .
Hence the Biblical “Galilee of the Nations”,
means district of the non-israelites .
The “nations” would have been the
foreigners who came to settle there,
during and after Hiram I of Sidon, 980 BC,
or who had been forcibly deported there
by later conquerers such as the Assyrians.]
2
The people who went in the dark
have seen a great light,
and for those who were
living in the land of the deepest night,
the light is shining.
3
You have made them very glad,
— as men are glad when gorging on grain,
or when dividing the spoils of war.
For you have freed them from a cruel master,
as in the day of [Midian’s defeat].
For all the bloodied uniforms of the soldier
will be retired, cremated.
6
For to us a child has come,
to us a son is given;
and the government has been placed in his hands;
and he has been named
Pele-Yo’etz El Gibbor Avi-‘Ad Sar-Shalom
(Wise Guide, Strong God, Father for ever*, Prince of Peace).
*:[ referring to disciple agreements that last forever,
as they are never broken, because they are easy to keep
because their law is written in our hearts throughout the day.]

7 David’s [Israel-unifying] rule
will increase forever [globalization];
the peace in his kingdom will be forever,
to make it strong,
supporting it with wise decision and righteousness,
now and for ever.
By the persistent intention of the Lord of armies
this will be done.

8 Adonai has sent a word to Jacob,
and it has come on Israel (north and Judah);
9 And all the people will have experience of it,
even Ephraim and the men of Samaria,
[the northern Israel separating from Judah ]
who say in the pride of their uplifted hearts,
10
The bricks have come down,
but in their place we will put up
buildings of cut stone:
the sycamores are cut down,
but they will be changed to cedars.

11 For this cause the Lord has made strong
the haters of Israel,
driving them on to make war against him;
12 Aram on the east,
and the Philistines on the west,
yet there are more haters still:
[Assyrians, … Babylonians, Greeks,
and finally Romans]
13 But hearts are not turned to
their punisher; [the god they offended]
and they make no prayer to ADONAI-Tzva’ot
[the Lord of armies].

14 For this cause
the Lord took away from Israel
head and tail, high and low,
in one day.
15 The man who is honoured and responsible
is the head,
and the prophet who gives false teaching
is the tail.
16 For the guides of this people are
the cause of their wandering from the right way,
and those who are guided by them
come to destruction.

17 For this cause
the Lord will have no pleasure in their young men,
and no pity on their widows and the fatherless:
for they are all haters of God and evil-doers,
and foolish words come from every mouth.
For all this his wrath is not turned away,
but his hand is stretched out still.
18 For evil was burning like a fire;
the blackberries and thorns were burned up;
the thick woods took fire,
rolling up in dark clouds of smoke.

19 The land was dark with the
wrath of the Lord of armies:
the people were like cannibals.
20 On the right
a man was cutting off bits and was still in need;
on the left
a man took a meal but had not enough;
no man had pity on his brother;
every man was cannibalizing his neighbour.
21 Manasseh was making a meal of Ephraim,
and Ephraim of Manasseh;
and together they were attacking Judah.
For all this his wrath is not turned away,
but his hand is stretched out still.

prophet Zephaniah 640 – 603 BC .

prophet Jeremiah 626 BC .

prophet Daniel 606 BC .

prophet Ezekiel 592 BC .

Neo-Babylonian Empire 586 BC:

. while Israel was being a client-state of Assyria
Assyia was eaten by Babylon,
and the Kingdom of Judah enjoyed prosperity;
but, then the end, in 586 BC,
there was a revolt against the Neo-Babylonian Empire
that fell Isreal’s Temple in 588 BCE .
. in 538 BCE, about 49 years after the Temple falls,
Persians conquer Babylon (October)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Restoration#Return
and, Cyrus “the anointed of the Lord”
allows Jews to return to Jerusalem .

538 BC: Gabriel “The Man” to Daniel:

(wiki, bbe, bible.cc)
24
. in the next 70*7 = 490 years
your people and your holy town will be transformed:
wrongdoing will be complete;
sin will come to its full limit;
evil-doing will be cleared away;
and, eternal righteousness will come in:
so that the vision and the word of the prophet
may be stamped as true,
and a most holy place will be annointed .
25
Have then the certain knowledge that
there will be 7*7 = 49 years
from the time of Jerusalem’s [first destruction, 588 BC,
and hence the word to rebuild its Temple]*
till the coming of an anointed prince,
[Cyrus the Great frees them to rebuild, 538 BC];
in 62*7 = 434 years, its building will be complete
with square[plaza, open spaces] and earthwork[moats].
*: [4.13: this assumes the order to rebuild,
was the same time as the destruction;
but some refer us to Nehemiah 2:1:

Nehemiah, the Jewish cupbearer to King Artaxerxes,
obtained a decree to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem
on March 5, 444 B.C.
. the “years” of Daniels refers to have 360 days each
so the “49” is 48.2967 years,
therefore 396 BC is the coming of an anointed prince;

in 396,  Plato publishes his  Apologia
which is a defence of his mentor Socrates
against charges of being a youth-corrupting cult .
Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought,
as the church understood Plato’s “forms”
to be referring to the god’s thoughts .]
26
And at the end of the times,
even after the 434 years,
the anointed will be cut off and have no …;
[ High Priest Alexander Yannai came to power in 103 BC,
just at the end of the 434 year period;
and was the last of the important Hasmonean leaders
he had a violent animosity against the Pharisees
and brazenly rejected the Oral Law .
4.14: however, this Jewish interpretation
avoids considering Jesus;
because, in no way was he “annointed”
by the Jewish establishment;
nevertheless, “annointed” applies to Prophets,
and many Jews did accept Jesus as a prophet;
and, he certainly was cut off (crucified),
in order that he “have no …” [Word]
and it happened “even after” 103 BC,
and it was “at the end times” for Israel .]
. and,
a prince [Antiochus IV (ruled Jews until 164 BC)]
wastes the town and the holy place [in 167 BC].
27
And for 7 years,
a strong order will be sent out against many;
and so for half of the 7years
the offering and the meal offering will come to an end;
and in its place will be an unclean thing causing fear;
[Hellinist Antiochus IV offered unkosher meat to the god]
till the destruction which has been fixed
is let loose on him who has made waste.
[Antiochus IV’s rule ends with his destruction .]

Daniel 10:
In the third year of Koresh[Cyrus], king of Persia,
a secret was unfolded to Daniel,
whose name was Belt’shatzar [Belteshazzar];

18
Then again one having the form of a man
put his hand on me and gave me strength.
19
And he said to me, O man greatly loved,
have no fear: peace be with you,
be strong and let your heart be lifted up.
21
But I am going back to make war
with the angel of Persia,
and when I am gone,
the angel of [Hellinist] Greece will come.
And there is no one on my side against these,
but Mikha’el, your angel.

Daniel 11-12 [ prediction of Judea’s end ]

3
And a strong king will come to power,
ruling with great authority and doing whatever is his pleasure.
4 [but will fall] .
[. who? Alexander the Great:
. upon his death bed, he willed his kingdom to
four of his generals, Cassander, Lysimachus,
Seleucus I “Nicator” [the North, Syria, Hellenist]
and Ptolemy I “Soter” [the South, Egypt]
These two kingdoms were routinely invading Israel
in the process of trying to conquer each other.]

[. The Seleucid Empire [the north]
was a Greek-Macedonian Hellenistic state
Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there,
expanded his dominions to include much of
Alexander’s near eastern territories.
At the height of its power,
it included central Anatolia, the Levant,
Mesopotamia, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan,
Pamir and present-day Pakistan.
the Seleucid’s attempts at defeating Egypt
were frustrated by Roman [western] demands .]

[ Around 250 B.C.]
5
. the king of the south will be overtaken
by one of his own captains[princes].
6
… the daughter of the king of the south
will [marry] the king of the north:
[ but this will not help southern power ].

13
[ north attacks south again ]
14
[ Israelites too will attack the south;]
the children of the violent ones among [Israelites]
will be lifting themselves up
to make the vision come true;
but it will be [Israel’s] downfall.
15
[ south will fail to keep their position, ]
16
And he who comes against him will do his pleasure,
and no one will be able to keep his place before him:
he will take up his position in the beautiful land
[Land of Glory]
and in his hand there will be destruction.
[details:
. many of the Egyptians began rebelling against
the ruling Grecian family
Many of the more zealous Jews
also began rebelling against the Ptolemaic regime,
hoping to establish their own independence.
. against the king of the North (Antiochus III the Great)
the South will be powerless;
Antiochus III the Great
took {Israel, Palestine}, the Beautiful Land,
from the Ptolemies at the Battle of Panias in 197 B.C.
The Ptolemaic kingdom was never able to reclaim it
from the Seleucid kingdom .]
17
And it will be north’s purpose to
come with the strength of all south’s kingdom,
via offering daughters hand in marriage
to send destruction on south;
but this will not take place or come about.
18
After this, north attacks islands,
but one of north’s own commanders
shames the north’s king instead .
[details:

Antiochus III the Great
took many of the coastline territories
bordering on the eastern and northeastern edges
of the Mediterranean Sea
away from the Ptolemaic Kingdom.]

19
[ north finally tries attacking his own strongholds
but fails, and is not seen again.]
20
[instead, there is seen a tax collector
(one with the glory of a king collecting wealth);]
but after a short time destruction will overtake him,
but not in wrath or in the fight.
21
And his place will be taken by a low person,
to whom the honour of the [north] kingdom
had not been given:
but he will come in time of peace
and will gain the kingdom by fair words[intrigue].
22
. his forces will be completely broken;
and even the [prince of the covenant]
will have the same fate.
[details:

Antiochus IV Epiphanes was not directly in line
to be a ruler of the North;
However, he flattered the Romans
in order to make a covenant with them
that would let him be a ruler .
. later, this “prince of the covenant”
would be murdered by the rightful ruler-to-be .]

23
[. Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the king of the North ],
makes a false agreement with [a leader in Israel]
his real intentions involve a plan to
take up arms suddenly with a small force,
24
[he will surprise-attach the country’s key men]
(it will be a complete surprise because
no forefathers ever used this strategy):
sharing the wealth taken from wars
even while making designs against them …
25
And these designs prevail over the south’s
very great and strong army:
26
And his fears will overcome him
and be the cause of his downfal
[ they were paralyzed with fear
from being attacked from within .]
27
. as for the kings [of north and south]
their hearts will be fixed on doing evil
and they will say false words
[even as they sit] at one table;
but it will come to nothing:
28
[north] will go back to his land with great wealth;
his heart will be against the holy [covenant];
and he will do his pleasure
and go back to his land.
29
At the time fixed [north] will again
invade the South [ Second invasion in 169 B.C.,
against Egypt’s Ptolemy VII Philometer]
but this time is not as it was before;
30
because, he was ordered to stop invading
by the west [Roman ships from Kittim
carrying the Roman senate’s ambassador ]
and [Antiochus], in fear,
will go back, full of wrath
against the holy covenant:
he will go back and be united with
those who have given up the holy agreement.
[. ie,
Helenized Jews would be saved by Antiochus,
while faithful Jews would be ruined .
background:

. While Antiochus was busy in Egypt,
a rumor spread that he had been killed
and so the High Priest appointed by Antiochus
was overpowered by the deposed Jewish High Priest
in the city of Jerusalem.
On the King’s return from Egypt in 167 BC
enraged by his defeat,
Antiochus attacked Jerusalem
and restored his own High Priest,
then executed many Jews.
To consolidate his empire
and strengthen his hold over the region,
Antiochus decided to Hellenize the Jews
by outlawing Jewish religious rites,
forbidding traditions kept by observant Jews
and by ordering the worship of Zeus
as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12).
. the Jews refused, and Jerusalem burned .]

31
his armies will make unclean the holy place,
even the strong place,
and take away the regular[daily] burned offering
and put in its place an unclean thing causing fear
[ the abomination that causes desolation:
they offered unkosher meat to the g-d ].

32 [why should Jews stay Jews? ]
. those who do evil against the covenant
will be turned to sin by his fair words:
but the people who have knowledge of their God
will be strong and do well[prevail].

33 [yet resistance will be futile: ]
. the masses will have been wisely taught
but they will come to their downfall
by the sword and by the flame,
being made prisoners
and undergoing loss for a long time.
34
Now at the time of their downfall
they will have a little help,
but numbers will be joined to them in the town,
and in their separate heritages
[ many “helpers” were insincere.]

35 [what do the wise do then? ]
And some of those who are wise
will have wisdom in testing themselves
and making themselves clean,
till the time of the end:
for it is still for the fixed time .
36
And the king will do his pleasure;
he will put himself on high,
lifting himself over every god,
and saying things to be wondered at
against the God of gods;
and all will be well for him
till the wrath is complete;
for what has been purposed will be done.
37 He will have no respect for
the gods of his fathers
or for the god desired by women;
he will have no respect for any god:
for he will put himself on high over all.
38 But in place of this he will
give honour to the god of armed places;
and, he will give honour with jewelry
to a god his fathers had no knowledge of.
39 And he will make use of
the people of a strange god
to keep his strongest places;
to those whom he takes note of
he will give high honour:
and he will make them rulers,
and will pay for them with
a division of the land .

[end of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires:
. the Roman Empire (Julius Caesar and general Pompey)
swept down through Palestine, into Egypt,
and into Libya and Ethiopia (Nubia).
eventually, the Roman Empire controlled
all the Mediterranean Sea coast;
the King of the North becomes the Roman Empire .
. Jewish conflict with the Romans resulted in
destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.]

[a summary of all of the above:]

40
And at the time of the end,
the king of the south
will make an attack on [Judaism]:
and the king of the north [hellinists and Romans]
will come against [Judaism] like a storm-wind,
with war-carriages, horsemen, and numerous ships;
and [Judaism] will go through many lands
like overflowing waters.
41
And [Romans] will come into the beautiful land
[{Israel, Palestine}, Land of Glory],
and tens of thousands will be overcome:
but some will not be falling into his hands:
Edom and Mo’av[Moab] and the chief* of
the children of ‘Amon[Ammon].
*: [ “chief of” could mean majority of,
or it could be a reference to Isaiah;
ie, Israel is mocked for being
a chief of people who would outlive them .
. the Israeli territories were divided
by a strip of valleys and lakes;
the western side faces the Mediterranean sea;
the eastern side was saved .]
42
. the [Romans] hand will be stretched out:
the south[Egypt] will not be safe from him.
43
But [Egypt] will have power over the money,
and over all the valued things of the south:
and the Libyans and the Ethiopians
will be at his steps.
44
But [Hellinist Seleucids’ Antiochus IV] will be
troubled by news from both the east[Iranians]
and the north[Romans];
and he will go out in great wrath,
to send destruction on, and put an end to,
great numbers.
45
. [Hellinist Seleucids’ Antiochus IV]
will put the tents of his great house
between the sea and the beautiful holy mountain:
but he will come to his end with no helper.

Daniel 12
And at that time,
Mikha’el the great prince[archangel],
who is the supporter of the children of [Israel]:
will take up his place,
and there will be a time of trouble,
such as the nation had never seen up to that time
and at that time your people will be kept safe,
everyone who is recorded in the book.
2
And a number of those who are
sleeping in the dust of the earth
will come out of their sleep,
some to eternal life
and some to eternal shame.
3
And those who are wise will be shining
like the light of the outstretched sky;
and those by whom numbers have been turned to righteousness
will be like the stars for ever and ever.

. the above was a prediction by Daniel 538 BC
of what would happen in 164 BC .
and then in 520-515 BCE,
about 20 years after freedom from Babylon,
the Foundations of the Second Temple are laid .

Second Temple Judaism 515 BC – 70:

. after the Temple was rebuilt, in 515 BCE,
until 70 CE, the Temple’s 2nd destruction,
Judaism is transformed in fundamental ways
(this is also Christianity’s Intertestamental period).
. this period was the origin of
the authority of scripture,
the centrality of law and morality in religion,
the synagogue
and the apocalyptic expectations for the future .

Sadducee party

. in 538 BC, Babylonia was overthrown
by Cyrus the Great’s Persian Empire;
he found the Jews enslaved there,
and let them return to Judea,
but didn’t allow the restoration of the Judean monarchy,
leaving the Judean priests as the dominant authority.
Without the constraining power of the monarchy,
the authority of the Temple in civic life was amplified.
It was around this time that the
Sadducee party emerged as the party of
priests and allied elites.
However,
the Second Temple (completed 515 BCE)
had been constructed under the auspices of a foreign power,
and there were lingering questions about its legitimacy
so there were also other houses for study and worship .
The Sadducee stance on the Temple under Hellenism
was that it was ok to be federated
even by the likes of Hellenism;
the important thing was to also be
governed by Jewish priests .
The Sadducees were fundamentalists,
literally interpreting the Torah;
and minimizing use of interpretations
as embodied in the Oral Law .
. the Torah doesn’t mention an afterlife .
[. Daniel’s invented the idea of the afterlife,
as a way to boost morale after Antiochus IV
persecuted Judaism and blessed Hellinism .]

prophet Malachi  445 and 432 BC .

. in the 2nd century BCE
the Judaeans revolted against the
Hellenist Seleucid Empire
and created the Hasmonean kingdom.

[Jews were divided over Hellenization;
and were divided over allegiance to
the Egyptian Ptolemies or Greek Seleucids.
in 175 BC,
When the High Priest Simon II died
conflict broke out over a replacement:
Onias III was anti-Hellenization, pro-Ptolemies;
and, a brief civil war installed Jason
who was pro-Hellenization, pro-Seleucids .
. Jason converted Jerusalem into a Greek polis
replete with gymnasium and ephebeionc
Some Jews are known to have engaged in
non-surgical foreskin restoration
in order to join the dominant cultural
practice of socializing naked in the gymnasium,
where their circumcision would have been a social stigma.

Antiochus IV (Seleucid Empire, 175 BC – 164 BC):

In 168 BC, Antiochus IV invaded Ptolemaic Egypt
but the Roman Republic forced him to withdraw;
in 167 BC, he then lashed out at against the
anti-Hellenization, pro-Ptolemies Jews
and against some of their politics .
. the troops of Antiochus sacked Jerusalem
and removed the sacred objects from the Temple,
slaughtering numerous Jews .
. they arrogantly entered into the sanctuary,
sacrificing swine’s flesh upon the altar .
. they also desecrated the Temple Mount,
by setting up an idol of Zeus on it .
. on pain of death, he forbade circumcision,
outlawed observance of the Sabbath,
and confiscated of Jewish scriptures .

In 164 BC, the ensuing revolt was a success
thanks to weakening of the Seleucid Empire
as it was attacked from east and west
by the Roman Republic, and the
budding Iranian Parthian Empire.

in 161 BCE, The Roman-Jewish Treaty
After five years of war and raids with Greeks
Judah sought an alliance with the Roman Republic
‘to make a league of amity and confederacy
with the Romans.’)
The agreement with Rome failed to have
any effect on Demetrius’ policy.
The death of Judah Maccabee (d. 160 BCE)
stirred the Jews to renewed resistance.
After several additional years of war
the Jews finally achieved decades of independence
and the liberty to worship freely.

160 BC, the Pharisees party:

. the Pharisees, as a party, is first mentioned
as existing after Judas Maccabeus died (160 BC).
One of the factors that distinguished
the Pharisees from other groups
prior to the destruction of the Temple
was their belief that being Jewish meant
observing the Temple service purity laws
outside of the Temple as well as inside .
The major difference, however,
was the continued adherence of the Pharisees
to the laws and traditions of the Jewish people
in the face of assimilation.
. the Pharisees were considered to be
the most expert and accurate expositors of Jewish law.
. During the Hasmonean period,
the Sadducees and Pharisees
functioned primarily as political parties.

Alexander Balas, who purported to be the son of Antiochus IV
was trying to take the Seleucian throne
and he made a bid for the loyalty of Jews;
Jonathan gladly accepted these terms,
took up residence at Jerusalem in 153 BCE,
and began fortifying the city.
Jonathan became the official leader of the Jews,
and officiated at the Feast of Tabernacles of 153 BC
wearing the High Priest’s garments.
The Hellenistic party could no longer attack him
without severe consequences.
Jonathan was invited to Ptolemais
to celebrate the power transition;
Balas appointed Jonathan as strategos and “meridarch”
sent him back with honors to Jerusalem,
and refused to listen to the Hellenistic party .
. a subsequent power transition took out Jonathan .

Simon assumed the leadership (142 BC),
receiving the double office of
High Priest and prince of Israel.
The leadership of the Hasmoneans was established
by a resolution, adopted in 141 BC:
Simon should be their leader and High Priest forever,
until there should arise a faithful prophet”
(1 Macc. 14:41). Ironically,
the election was performed in Hellenistic fashion.

Simon, having made the Jewish people
semi-independent of the Seleucid Greeks,
reigned from 142-135 BC
and formed the Hasmonean dynasty.
The Roman Senate accorded the new dynasty
recognition by the Romans c. 139 BC,
when the delegation of Simon was in Rome.
. in February 135 BC, he was assassinated .
The Seleucid empire had been disintegrating
in the face of the Seleucid–Parthian wars .

103 bc: Daniel’s end of 70 weeks of sin:

Alexander Jannaeus succeeds his brother Aristobulus I
as king and high priest of Judea, until 76 BC.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Yannai)
was king of Judea from 103 BC to 76 BC.
The son of John Hyrcanus, he inherited the throne
from his brother Aristobulus I,
and appears to have married his brother’s widow,
Shlomtzion or “Shelomit”, also known as Salome Alexandra,
according to the Biblical law of Yibbum
(“levirate marriage”),
His likely full Hebrew name was “Jonathan”;
he may have been the High Priest Jonathan,
rather than his great-uncle of the same name,
who established the Masada fortress.
Under the name “King Yannai”
he appears as a wicked tyrant in the Talmud,
reflecting his conflict with the Pharisee party.

Yannai vs Pharisees:

Although the Pharisees had opposed the
wars of expansion of the Hasmoneans
and the forced conversions of the Idumeans,
the political rift between them became wider
when Pharisees demanded that
the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus
choose between being king
and being High Priest.
In response, the king openly sided with the Sadducees
by adopting their rites in the Temple.
His actions caused a riot in the Temple
and led to a brief civil war that ended with
a bloody repression of the Pharisees.
. the next in line to rule was his wife,
and sister of a leading Pharisee.
. the Pharisees political influence
grew tremendously under her reign,
especially in the Sanhedrin, a judicial institution .
Later texts such as the Mishnah and the Talmud
record a host of rulings ascribed to the Pharisees
concerning sacrifices and other Temple practices,
torts, criminal law, and governance.
The Pharisees remained strong in their influence
over the lives of the common people,
and their rulings on Jewish law
were deemed authoritative by many.
. Upon the queen’s death
her elder son, Hyrcanus was pro-Pharisee,
while her younger son, Aristobulus,
was pro-Sadducees.
Their conflicts culminated in a civil war
that ended when the Roman general Pompey
captured Jerusalem in 63 BC
and inaugurated the Roman period of Jewish history.

. in 37 BC, Israel became a Roman client state
with Herod the Great (an Idumean) as king
and that marked the end of the Hasmonean dynasty.

Pharisees phase out Sadducees:

Although the priests controlled Temple rituals,
study of the Torah was done mostly by rabbis
who consisted of scribes and sages .
. the Pharisees identified with the Prophets
and developed and maintained
the ancient oral tradition
(later written in a book, the Talmud);
ie, unlike Sadducees,
Pharisees weren’t fundamentalists:
They were flexible in their Torah interpretations
and willing to adapt it to changing circumstances.

Pharisees were the spiritual root of modern Judaism:
. the Pharisees interpretated the Torah
using the Talmud containing the Oral Law .
. they maintained that an afterlife existed
to punish the wicked, and reward the righteous
(just as Daniel declared).
They also believed in a messiah
who would herald an era of world peace.
. after the destruction of the Temple;
Pharisees developed individual prayer
and promoted assembly within synagogues.

The Essenes were a separatist group,
some of whom formed an ascetic monastic community
and retreated to the wilderness of Judea,
lived in communes,
and practiced ritual immersion .

The Sicarii and the Zealots
were groups of extreme nationalists
characterized as political or criminal factions:

The Sicarii, a “Fourth Philosophy”:
. The Zealots were a “fourth sect”,
founded in the year 6
by Judas of Galilee and Zadok the Pharisee
to be against Quirinius’ tax reform,
and to agree in all other things
with the Pharisaic notions;
but they were champions of liberty,
with God being their only Ruler and Lord.

. By the first century CE,
the Pharisees came to represent
the beliefs and practices of
the majority of Palestinian Jewry.
. two of the most important Pharisees
are Hillel and Shammai:

Hillel the Elder in Jerusalem
was one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
He is associated with the development of the
Mishnah and the Talmud.
Renowned within Judaism as a sage and scholar,
he was the founder of the House of Hillel
school for Tannaïm (Sages of the Mishnah)
and the founder of a dynasty of Sages
who headed Jews living in the land of Israel
until roughly 5 century after Jesus .

Shammai was the halakhic opponent of Hillel;
he founded a school, the House of Shammai .

Jesus life and philosophy:

. Jesus was a Jew who spoke Aramaic,
hence his name was Yeshua;
but people often called him “Rabbi” .
. like other Jews of his day,
he was faithful to the law of Moses
the teachings of the prophets;
and he expected the imminent coming
of the messianic era
(“Kingdom of God”, he’d call it).
He grew up and worked in Galilee,
where Jewish patriotism was intense.

Jesus considered the Pharisees philosophy
to be the true heirs and successors of Moses.
Although Jesus would probably not have
defined himself as a Pharisee,
his beliefs, especially his moral beliefs,
are similar to the Pharisaic school of Hillel
which stresses the love of God and neighbor:
they preached mutual love,
and blessing one’s prosecuters .
[4.13:
. some differentiate enemy from prosecuter;
which did Jesus mean?
certainly he was concerned with Israel’s safety;
ie, he would defend Jews against foreign invasion.
. notice in Jesus’ examples of tolerance
only brothers are hitting your cheek,
they are not foreigners invading you .]

Jesus shared intense eschatological expectations
(see *Eschatology; *Apocalypse).

Jesus said the Pharisees were hypocrites;
but, the Essene were far harsher
and talmudic sources had similar complaints .

. like the Essene,
[ Jesus sought to comfort the poor
in contrast to the elitist response
where every family defends their own,
and if a family is struck by disaster
an elitist assumes g-d is punishing them .]
Jesus’ “turn the other cheek” (Matt. 5:39)
has clear parallels in the Essene’s
Dead Sea Scrolls.

didn’t break Jewish laws:
. according to the first 3 Gospels,
Jesus was faithful to Jewish law.
On the matter of washing hands (Mark 7:5)
and plucking ears of corn on the Sabbath (Mark 2:23ff.),
it was his disciples, not Jesus himself,
who were less strict in their observance of the law.
[ but he did defend them .]
According to the Synoptic Gospels,
Jesus did not heal by physical means on the Sabbath;
and healing through speech was permitted,
even when the illness was not dangerous.
. if the book of John portrays Jesus as less Jewish,
that book is less historically inclined .

The liberal Pharisaic school of Hillel
was not unhappy to see gentiles become Jews.
In contrast, the school of Shammai
made conversion as difficult as possible
because it had grave reservations about proselytism,
most of which Jesus shared (Matt. 23:15).
[ Jesus spoke of proselytism of foreigners
in the same breath as
destruction of the Temple .]

As a rule Jesus did not heal non-Jews;
none of the rabbinical documents
commanded him to not heal a non-Jew.
[ that was his way of saying
his main message was Jewish solidarity .
. when he said love your enemies,
he was talking about ending civil wars .]
[3.14:
. in Jesus’ day, there were 3 regions
where the ancient unified Israel used to be:
Galilee, Samaria, Judea
(located north to south).
. the sign on his cross read:  INRI
(Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews).
. the meaning of this sign was that
Jesus was being mocked as disoriented:
he was from Nazareth [small town, Galilee]
yet he was acting like he was
king of the Jews [people in Judea]. ]

non-orthodox accounts of Jesus

. the father of Jesus is called Pantira.
Pantira was another name of Jacob,
the father of Joseph, father of Jesus
(Adversus Haereses 3:78, 7).
. Miriam had been divorced by her husband
who suspected her of adultery;
and, Jesus was born as the result of
Miriam’s secret affair with
a Roman soldier, Panthera
(Πανθηρα; Contra Celsum 1:28, 32).

Jesus was mentioned in the Talmud
but these writings were separated around 1578
because Judaism and Christianity had parted .
(cf. R.N.N. Rabbinowicz,
Ma’amar al Hadpasat ha-Talmud (1952), 28n.26).
The rabbis were not certain of
his time or his activities.
Thus he is described as a pupil of
Joshua b. Peraḥyah
(Sanh. 107b; see Dik. Sof. ad loc.).
In the Middle Ages, Jehiel of Paris
claimed that there was no connection between
Jesus, the pupil of Joshua b. Peraḥyah
and Jesus the Nazarene
(Vikku’aḥ, ed. by R. Margaliot (1928), 16f.).

From the stories in the Babylonian Talmud,
it is evident that Jesus was regarded as
a rabbinical student who had
strayed into evil ways:
“May we produce no son or pupil
who disgraces himself like Jesus the Nazarene”
(Ber. 17b; Sanh. 103a; cf. Dik. Sof. ad loc.).
In one baraita
Jesus appears as a sorcerer and
enticer who led people astray.
“They hanged Jesus on the eve of Passover.
Forty days earlier a proclamation was issued
that he was to be stoned for practicing sorcery
and for enticing and leading Israel astray.”
[ in conformity with the halakhah (Sanh. 7:4)]
“Let anyone who can speak in his favor come forward.”
“Nothing in his favor was discovered
and they hanged him on the eve of Passover.”

After the stoning he was hanged,
since all who are put to death by stoning
are subsequently hanged,
according to R. Eliezer
who often transmits ancient halakhah (Sanh. 6:4).
Jesus was crucified, i.e., hanged alive,
“as is done by the non-Jewish government”
(Sif. Deut. 221).
In the talmudic account, however,
his death conforms with
the death penalty of the bet din
as prescribed by the halakhah (see *Crucifixion).

Whenever Jesus name is mentioned in
places other than the Talmud,
it is in connection with his disciples.
It speaks about “Jesus the Nazarene
having had five disciples,
Matthew, Nakai, Nazar, Boneh, and Thodah,”
all of whom were put to death.
For each of them a verse is cited
in which his name is mentioned
and his execution hinted at
(Sanh. 43a; Dik. Sof. ad loc.; Yal. Mak. to Isa. 11:1).

Jesus as the Son of Man

Jesus spoke of the “*Son of Man”
in the third person, as though
[ what was important about what he said
was that it referred to that role;
speaking in the 3rd person is shorthand for
( I have ideas about being a Son of Man,
but regardless who is serving in that role,
here is a statement about that role) .]

In the Jewish Second Commonwealth
(332 BCE-c. 70 CE)
“Son of Man” and the Messiah
are frequently identified with each other .

son of man is first seen in Daniel 7:1-14
1
In the first year of Belshazzar, king of Bavel[Babylon],
Daniel saw a dream, and visions came into his head on his bed:
then he put the dream in writing.
2
I saw the four winds of heaven
violently moving the great sea.
3 And four great beasts came up from the sea:
4
The first was like a lion with eagle’s wings;
then its wings were pulled off,
it was placed on two feet like a man,
and given a man’s heart .
5
the 2nd was like a bear,
and it was lifted up on one side,
and three side-bones were in its mouth,
between its teeth: and they said to it,
“Up! take much flesh”.
6
the 3rd was a leopard, with 4 wings, 4 heads,
and the power of a ruler .
7
the 4th beast,
a thing causing fear and very troubling,
full of power and very strong;
and it had great iron teeth:
it took its food, crushing some of it to bits
and stamping down the rest with its feet:
it was different from all the beasts before it;
and it had ten horns.
8
I was watching the horns with care,
and I saw another coming up among them, a little one,
before which 3 of the first horns
were pulled up by the roots:
and there were a man’s eyes in this horn,
and a mouth saying great things.
9
I went on looking [at the beast]
till the seats of kings were placed,
and one like a very old man took his seat:
[ symbol of a very wise judge: ]
clothing white as snow,
hair like clean wool;
flaming seat with wheels .
10
A stream of fire was flowing
and coming out from before him:
he had millions of servants,
and 100 million were in their places before him:
the judge was seated
and the books were open.
11
the horn kept saying great words
right up till the beast was put to death,
its body given to the burning of fire.
12
As for the rest of the beasts,
their authority was taken away:
but still living for a measure of time.
13
and coming with the clouds of heaven
there was one like a human being*,
[a SON OF MAN, a unifier like king David]
and he brought close to the wise judge .
*:[
The phrase “son of man” is retained here
because of its use in the New Testament
as a title of Jesus,
probably based largely on this verse.
–. as the book of John points out
Jesus is true to the Word of the god,
eg, coming with the clouds of heaven .
. in summary:
the wise judge with millions of servants
neutralizes the fearsome beast
and receives the true word of g-d .]
14
And to him was given authority
and glory and a kingdom;
and his servants included
all peoples, nations, and languages .
. his authority and his kingdom
are eternal, never ending .

Jesus in Judaism

After Jesus death, [or disappearance]
most of his followers — “the Nazarenes” —
were fishermen and artisans
living in Galilee [area around Nazareth]
and in Jerusalem [site of the Temple]
(headed by James, brother of Jesus).
. they were all Jews not Gentiles,
and continued to observe Jewish laws,
but also developed Jesus’ Kingdom of God.
until he, too, was put to death in year 62 .

. there were several Jewish Christian sects
(Nazarenes, Ebionites, Elchasaites, …)
and some endured for several centuries.
Some sects saw in Jesus mainly a prophet
and not the “Christ,”
others seem to have believed
Jesus was the Messiah,
but did not have Orthodox Christianity;
ie, the divinity of the Christ,
trinitarian conception of the Godhead,
and abrogation of the Law .

Jesus never called himself “Messiah”:
[ except he had told his disciples to
never tell anyone that he was the Messiah,
as if was obviously true ?
. Jesus did argue about the nature of Messiah
as if he was interested in the position:
if the Messiah must be a descendent of David,
why does David refer to him as Lord ? ]

The Ebionites and Nazarenes,
both ranked Jesus among the prophets
and stressed his prophetic role.
Throughout the New Testament
there are indications that
Jesus had seen himself as a prophet.
[. if the Messiah was a unifying spirit,
it would makes sense that he would be both:
a prophet speaks the word of g-d;
and, getting that word publicized
may be the key to the Messiah’s role .]

Paul & non-Jewish Christianity:

Paul was an energetic, Greek-speaking Jew
from Tarsus in Asia Minor .
He had never met Jesus
and wasn’t greatly impressed by
the Nazarenes he did meet
when he visited Jerusalem.
Paul had a vision that convinced him
Jesus was the messiah
(Christos is Greek for Messiah).
Unlike the Nazarenes,
who lived according to
Jewish law in Jerusalem and Galilee,
Paul took his message to gentiles as well as Jews
in Asia Minor and Greece.

Not only did Paul preach to gentiles,
but he also did not insist that these converts
submit themselves to circumcision
or to any of the other demands of Jewish law.
He believed that everybody in the churches
— Jews and gentiles, slaves and free persons —
should be equal,
[ whereas his fellow Jews were like Jesus:
wary of converting gentiles
and treating them as second-class citizens .]

Paul eventually dropped Judaizers altoghether
claiming there was no need for the law of Moses
and that faith in Christ and his teachings
was sufficient [to bring in g-d’s kingdom;
but this must mischaracterize Paul,
or else Paul is a hypocrite:
Jesus only added to the spirit of the law
he never disowned the law of Moses .]

The Jewish-Roman War (66-70 C.E.),
destroyed Jerusalem’s Temple;
and, mistrust of Jews was so widespread,
that within the Roman empire,
Christians denied their Jewish roots.

Paul’s Christianity quickly became
separate from and even hostile to Judaism;
Jews and Christians were fierce competitors
arguing over whether Jesus was the Christ
and over which group — Jews or Christians —
represented the “true Israel” .
. the Christian gospels had yet to be written
and this conflict shaped their “truth” .

One comment on “Ancient Israel from Noah to Jesus

  1. Pingback: relig/judaism/ancient history of the 12 tribes | Americium Dream Documents

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